Tuft Fracture Yeh PC et al. Pediatric Hand Fractures. Techniques in Orthopaedics. 2009. Seymour Fracture Nellans et al. Pediatric Hand Injuires. Hand Clin. 2013 November ; 29(4): 569–578 Yeh PC et al. Pediatric Hand Fractures. Techniques in Orthopaedics. 2009. Mallet Fracture Adolescent with mallet finger and Kirschner wire fixation. Nellans et al. Pediatric Hand Injuires. Hand Clin. 2013 November ; 29(4): 569–578 Mallet finger in splint. Yeh PC et al. Pediatric Hand Fractures. Techniques in Orthopaedics. 2009. Volar Plate Injury Yeh PC et al. Pediatric Hand Fractures. Techniques in Orthopaedics. 2009. Central Slip Injury Lee SA et al. Ultrasonography of the finger. Ultrasonography 2016; 35(2): 110-123. Yeh PC et al. Pediatric Hand Fractures. Techniques in Orthopaedics. 2009. Rotational Deformity A, B: Relatively normal appearance; C: in flexion, rotational abnormality evident. Liao CY et al. Pediatric Hand and Wrist Fractures. Clin Plastic Surg 46 (2019) 425–436 Yeh PC et al. Pediatric Hand Fractures. Techniques in Orthopaedics. 2009. Extra-Octave Fracture Mims L et al. Extra-Octave Fracture in a 14-Year-Old Basketball Player. Journal of Pediatrics. 2017; 186: P206-206 Same boy, after reduction and ulnar splint Same boy, on follow-up at 17 days Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injury Yeh PC et al. Pediatric Hand Fractures. Techniques in Orthopaedics. 2009. Bennett Fracture radiopaedia.org Rolando Fracture wikipedia.org Selected References Kiely AL et al. The optimal management of Seymour fractures in children and adolescents: a systematic review protocol. Systematic Reviews. 2020; 9 (150). Liao CY et al. Pediatric Hand and Wrist Fractures. Clin Plastic Surg 46 (2019) 425–436 Lin JS et al. Treatment of Acute Seymour Fractures. J Pediatr Orthop. 2009; 39(1):e23-e27. Mims L et al. Extra-Octave Fracture in a 14-Year-Old Basketball Player. Journal of Pediatrics. 2017; 186: P206-206 Mohseni M et al. Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injury. Stat Pearls. 2020 Nellans et al. Pediatric Hand Injuires. Hand Clin. 2013 November ; 29(4): 569–578 Pattni A et al. Volar Plate Avulsion Injury. Eplasty. 2016; 16: ic22. Stevenson J et al. The use of prophylactic flucloxacillin in treatment of open fractures of the distal phalanx within an accident and emergency department: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. The Journal of Hand Surgery: British & European. 2003; 28(5): 388-394 Yeh PC et al. Pediatric Hand Fractures. Techniques in Orthopaedics. 2009
A spectrum — but will you recognize the blurry signposts? Temperature (core) Presentation Management Miliaria Crystallina Normal Salt-colored tiny papules, easily burst; not pruritic Modify environment; light clothing; hydration Miliaria Rubra Normal Discrimiate, red papules, not assocaited with follicles; pruritic Above plus cool compresses; calamine lotion; symptomatic tx for pruritis Miliaria Profunda Normal Confluent flesh-colored, “lumpy-bumpy”; burning Same as rubra Miliaria Pustulosa Normal May resemble rubra and/or crustallina, but pustular; h/o previous dermatitis Same as above, but may may need antibiotic if no improvement over time Heat edema Normal Swelling of feet, ankles, and/or lower legs Modify environment; elevate legs Heat syncope Normal Dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, and syncope after exertion with rapid return to normal mental status when supine Modify environment; rehydration; monitoring Heat cramps May be elevated to 40°C (104°F) Exercise-induced cramping in large muscle groups, especially legs Hydration; consider labs (Cr, total CK); may counsel to stretch muscles passively, gently Heat tetany May be elevated to 40°C (104°F) Hyperventilation with paresthesia, carpopedal spasm Modify environment; hydration; may place non-rebreather mask on low (or off) for rebreathing CO2 Heat exhaustion Elevated up to 40°C (104°F) Normal mental status, fatigue, that rapidly improves with treatment; tachycardia; GI symptoms; electrolyte abnormalities Cool environment; hydration; consider labs with severe symptoms, or if not improved Heat Stroke >40 to 40.5°C (104 to 105°F) Altered mental status; tachypneic; tachycardic with hypotension; electrolyte abnormalities; GI symptoms; often with renal failure, rhabdomyloysis, renal failure; possibly with cardiogenic shock or ARDS or DIC Rapid cooling with all modalities available (radiation, conduction, convection, evaporation); IV rehydration; labs; monitoring; ICU admission Miliaria Crystallina Miliaria Crystallina — Infant Miliaria Crystallina — Older Child Miliaria Rubra — Infant Miliaria Rubra — Infant Miliaria Rubra — Toddler Miliaria Rubra — Adolescent Miliaria Profunda Selected References Bergeron MF, Devore C, et al. Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness and Council on School Health, Policy statement—Climatic heat stress and exercising children and adolescents. Pediatrics 2011; 128:e741. Casa DJ et al. The Inter-Association Task Force for Preventing Sudden Death in Secondary School Athletics Programs: Best-Practices Recommendations. J Athl Train. 2013 Jul-Aug; 48(4): 546–553. DeFranco MJ et al. Environmental issues for team physicians. Am J Sports Med. 2008 Nov;36(11):2226-37. Ishimine P. Hyperthermia. In: Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Baren JM, Rothrock SG, Brennan JA, Brown L (Eds), Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia 2008. p.992. Jardine DS. Heat illness and heat stroke. Pediatr Rev 2007; 28:249.
Traditional Approach: Secretory -- poisoned mucosal villi -- "the sieve" Cytotoxic -- destroyed mucosal villi -- "the shred" Osmotic -- malabsorption -- "the pull" Inflammatory -- edema, motility -- "the push" Lots of overlap, difficult to apply to clinical signs and symptoms. Bedside Approach: Fever/No Fever, Bloody/No Blood Non-bloody, febrile -- most likely viral Non-bloody, afebrile -- may be viral Bloody, febrile -- likely bacterial Non-bloody, afebrile -- full stop. Eval for Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Workup Ask yourself -- again -- why is this not... appendicitis-torsion-intussusception-etc. Admit sick children, but most go home, so... Non-bloody, febrile -- no workup necessary; precautionary advice Non-bloody, afebrile -- be more skeptical, but generally same as above Bloody, febrile -- stool culture, follow up; do not treat empirically unless septic and admitted. Culture will dictate treat/no treat/how. Bloody, afebrile -- evaluate for hemolytic uremic syndrome, especially if under 5 years old: CBC, chemistries, UA, stool culture Evaluate Hydration Status Selected References Khan WA et al. Central Nervous System Manifestations of Childhood Shigellosis: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Outcome. Pediatrics. 1999 Feb;103(2):E18 Lee JY et al. Diagnostic yield of stool culture and predictive factors for positive culture in patients with diarrheal illness. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Jul; 96(30): e7641. Nelson JD et al. Treatment of Salmonella gastroenteritis with ampicillin, amoxicillin, or placebo. Pediatrics 1980; 65:1125.
Pediatric Readiness is not just an ideal -- it's a tangible plan, a toolkit, and even better, an attitude How to improve your institution, and your own personal pediatric readiness. National Pediatric Readiness Project (NPRP) Los Angeles County Pediatric Readiness Project
Lund and Browder Chart to Estimate Burn Size in Children Parkland Formula for Burns Amount needed in addition to maintenance fluids: 4 mL/kg x BSA% = X Add 1/2 of X to maintenance over the 1st 8 hours Add the other 1/2 of X to maintenance over the next 16 hours Escharotomy Guide and the "Roman Breastplate" Yin et al. Bedside Escharotomies for Burns Classic Paragraph Selected References Mahar PD et al. Clinical differences between major burns patients deemed survivable and non-survivable on admisssion. Injury. 2015; 46:870-873. Mathis E et al. Pediatric Thermal Burns and Treatment: A Review of Progress and Future Prospects. Medicines. 2017; 4:91. Osuka A et al. Glycocalyx shedding is anhanced by age and correlates with increased fluid requirement in patients with major burns. Shock. 2017; 50(1):60-65. Sebastian R et al. Percutaneous pigtail catheter in the treatment of pneumothorax in major burns: The best alternative? Burns. 2015; e24-227 Sherren PB et al. Lethal triad in severe burns. Burns. 2014; 1492-1496. Strobel AM et al. Emergency Care of Pediatric Burns. Emerg Med Clin N AM. 2018; 441-458.