Contributor: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls: Majority of patients experience side effects while taking opioids Most common include nausea/vomiting, puriitis, constipation; more severe and less common include respiratory depression, addiction and overdose Opiates can cause nausea, but ondansetron (Zofran) is the wrong treatment because it’s not antidopaminergic. Instead consider using metoclopramide (Reglan), olanzapine (Zyprexa), or haloperidol (Haldol) Itching from opiates isn’t histamine mediated so hydroxyzine (Atarax) and diphenhydramine (Benadryl) aren’t effective - oddly ondansetron may help with itching. Constipation is best treated with promotility agents like Senna, rather than stool softeners References Rogers E, Mehta S, Shengelia R, Reid MC. Four Strategies for Managing Opioid-Induced Side Effects in Older Adults. Clin Geriatr. 2013 Apr;21(4): PMID: 25949094; PMCID: PMC4418642. Farmer AD, Holt CB, Downes TJ, Ruggeri E, Del Vecchio S, De Giorgio R. Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of opioid-induced constipation. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Mar;3(3):203-212. doi: 10.1016/S2468-1253(18)30008-6. PMID: 29870734. Summarized by Jackson Roos, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.com/cme-courses/ and create an account.
Contributor: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: Recent study looked at if mask wearing protects the mask wearer from infection This group found 1.8% of mask wearers got COVID while 2.1% of non-mask wearers became infected, which was not statistically significant This was not statistically significant and has been used to justify not wearing masks by some groups While the numbers look small, it's close to a 20% reduction in infections for the mask wearers The results reported had concerns for being underpowered, meaning the studies population may not be big enough to draw definitive conclusions Many limitations of study including how wearing a mask may protect others Unfortunately, studies like these can lead to misinterpretation and distortion References Bundgaard H, Bundgaard JS, Raaschou-Pedersen DET, von Buchwald C, Todsen T, Norsk JB, Pries-Heje MM, Vissing CR, Nielsen PB, Winsløw UC, Fogh K, Hasselbalch R, Kristensen JH, Ringgaard A, Porsborg Andersen M, Goecke NB, Trebbien R, Skovgaard K, Benfield T, Ullum H, Torp-Pedersen C, Iversen K. Effectiveness of Adding a Mask Recommendation to Other Public Health Measures to Prevent SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Danish Mask Wearers : A Randomized Controlled Trial. Ann Intern Med. 2020 Nov 18. doi: 10.7326/M20-6817. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33205991. Summarized by Jackson Roos, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.com/cme-courses/ and create an account.
Contributor: Rachael Duncan, PharmD Educational Pearls: ED visits nationwide declined by 42% in April 2020 compared to the same time in 2019 largely due to the fear of the COVID-19 pandemic. The biggest decline was seen in pediatrics less than 14, women and emerging COVID hotspots like the Northeast. In recent weeks, this trend has reversed, showing a record-breaking number of COVID cases, hospitalizations, and deaths. As hospitals reach capacity, critically ill COVID patients are being held in the ED until an inpatient bed becomes available. A new mRNA vaccine has promising preliminary trial results to help end the COVID-19 pandemic. While traditional vaccines contain purified proteins or weakened viruses, the mRNA vaccine is genetic material that is coded within the human body to make the viral protein. The mRNA vaccine codes for the critical fragment of the viral protein without causing disease and leads to the production of powerful antibodies. Although synthetic mRNA is genetic material, it cannot be passed on to further generations. mRNA vaccines are much faster to develop and could potentially provide a more efficient process for developing future vaccines Cold temperatures are currently needed to maintain the stability of the mRNA which has posed a challenge to the viability of the vaccines. However, developments are underway to overcome this hurdle. References: A Trial Investigating the Safety and Effects of Four BNT162 Vaccines Against COVID-2019 in Healthy Adults - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov. Clinicaltrials.gov. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04380701. Published 2020. Accessed November 25, 2020. Karikó K, Buckstein M, Ni H, Weissman D. Suppression of RNA recognition by Toll-like receptors: the impact of nucleoside modification and the evolutionary origin of RNA. Immunity. 2005;23(2):165-175. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2005.06.008 Safety and Immunogenicity Study of 2019-nCoV Vaccine (mRNA-1273) for Prophylaxis of SARS-CoV-2 Infection (COVID-19) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov. Clinicaltrials.gov. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04283461. Published 2020. Accessed November 25, 2020. Schlake T, Thess A, Fotin-Mleczek M, Kallen KJ. Developing mRNA-vaccine technologies. RNA Biol. 2012;9(11):1319-1330. doi:10.4161/rna.22269 Wolff JA, Malone RW, Williams P, et al. Direct gene transfer into mouse muscle in vivo. Science. 1990;247(4949 Pt 1):1465-1468. doi:10.1126/science.1690918 Summarized by Emily Mack OMSIII | Edited by Mason Tuttle
For this episode of Mental Health Monthly, EMM is honored to collaborate with the hosts of Millennial Mental Health Channel podcast to explain Borderline Personality Disorder and tips to manage patients with this diagnosis in the Emergency Department. Dr. Justin Romano is a third year psychiatry resident in Omaha, Nebraska and Eddie Carrillo is a licensed mental health therapist currently working at partial hospitalization and IOP eating disorder program in Portland, Oregon. Their podcast Millennial Mental Health Channel seeks to explore the world of mental health from their two professional perspectives. You can listen to their podcast on all major streaming platforms including Apple Podcasts, Spotify and Google Podcasts. Follow them on Twitter and Instagram @millennialmhc Contributors: Dr. Justin Romano and Eddie Carrillo, M.A., LPC Educational Pearls: 4% of the general population has Bipolar Personality Disorder (BPD) and 9% of all emergency room visits involve patients with BPD. BPD is defined as a pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, affect and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. There are 9 symptoms of BPD. In order to meet criteria for diagnosis you need 5 of the 9. Symptoms include: Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment Pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships, characterized by alternating between extremes of idealization and devaluation Identity disturbance: markedly and persistently unstable self-image or sense of self Impulsivity in at least two areas that are potentially self-damaging Recurrent suicidal behaviors, gestures, threats or self-mutilating behavior Affect instability due to marked reactivity of mood Chronic feelings of emptiness Inappropriate intense anger or difficulty controlling anger Transient stress related paranoid ideation or severe dissociative symptoms Pathophysiology behind BPD: Overactivation of the amygdala within the limbic system which controls fear, anxiety and anger. Often patients with BPD have dealt with an increased amount of trauma in their lives. They have one of the highest suicide rates at 10%. Behaviors in individuals with BPD are often due to an invalidating environment in an attempt to reconnect with people they love. Tips to managing patients in the emergency room with BPD. Stay calm, consistent and caring and validate their feelings with: Body language: sit at eye level, make good eye contact, nod your head when they talk, and use repeat back clarification questions. Facial expressions: be cognizant of your facial expressions. Patients with BPD are more likely to interpret a neutral face as angry. Set boundaries and stick to your word. Patients with BPD can be described as manipulative, but often they are unaware they are doing this. Give validating statements. This will ensure the patient you are listening and working with them to solve their problems. Summarized by Emily Mack, OMSIII
Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Contrary to many assumptions, meter-dose inhalers (MDIs) are as effective as nebulizers in pediatric and adult patients Nebulizers are associated with higher rates of tremor, tachycardia; they cost more and are associated with longer ED stays Though it may take some convincing, in a patient that is physically able, using an MDI with spacer appears to be the better option - and that was even before COVID. References Snider MA, Wan JY, Jacobs J, Kink R, Gilmore B, Arnold SR. A Randomized Trial Comparing Metered Dose Inhalers and Breath Actuated Nebulizers. J Emerg Med. 2018 Jul;55(1):7-14. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2018.03.002. Epub 2018 Apr 30. PMID: 29716819. Brocklebank D, Ram F, Wright J, Barry P, Cates C, Davies L, Douglas G, Muers M, Smith D, White J. Comparison of the effectiveness of inhaler devices in asthma and chronic obstructive airways disease: a systematic review of the literature. Health Technol Assess. 2001;5(26):1-149. doi: 10.3310/hta5260. PMID: 11701099. Dhuper S, Chandra A, Ahmed A, Bista S, Moghekar A, Verma R, Chong C, Shim C, Cohen H, Choksi S. Efficacy and cost comparisons of bronchodilatator administration between metered dose inhalers with disposable spacers and nebulizers for acute asthma treatment. J Emerg Med. 2011 Mar;40(3):247-55. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2008.06.029. Epub 2008 Dec 11. PMID: 19081697. Summarized by Jackson Roos, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.com/cme-courses/ and create an account.
Contributor: Ryan Circh, MD Educational Pearls: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) can be the initial presenting condition of undiagnosed diabetes type I in pediatric patients Unlike adults, children typically need less fluid (i.e. 10 mL/kg bolus for those in shock followed by maintenance) Cerebral edema is a concern from rapid administration of fluids An insulin drip at 0.1 units/Kg/hr should be started but a bolus isn’t required Editor’s note: While conceptually similar, treatment for pediatric DKA is overall less aggressive (no bolus of insulin, less fluids, slower corrections, etc.). Recent literature also continues to argue against cerebral edema being related to fluid management References Hsia D, Tarai S, Alimi A, Coss-Bu J, Haymond M. Fluid management in pediatric patients with DKA and rates of suspected clinical cerebral edema. Pediatr Diabetes. 2015;16(5):338-344. Wolfsdorf J, Glaser N, Sperling M, American D. Diabetic ketoacidosis in infants, children, and adolescents: A consensus statement from the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(5):1150-1159. Olivieri L, Chasm R. Diabetic ketoacidosis in the pediatric emergency department. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2013 Aug;31(3):755-73. doi: 10.1016/j.emc.2013.05.004. Epub 2013 Jul 6. PMID: 23915602. Summarized by Jackson Roos, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.com/cme-courses/ and create an account.
Contributor: Nick Tsipis, MD Educational Pearls: Perichondritis involves infection of not only the connective tissue of the ear but typically the cartilage as well Symptoms include erythema, ear pain, and fevers The most common bacterial cause is Pseudomonas. Perichondritis often occurs after a wound or piercing, but trauma is not necessary for the infection to occur Anti-pseudomonal coverage is essential with typically oral agents for milder disease and IV antibiotics for severe infections Can have devastating outcomes if not treated aggressively and/or treated early due to poor blood supply to the cartilage of the ear References Prasad HK, Sreedharan S, Prasad HS, Meyyappan MH, Harsha KS. Perichondritis of the auricle and its management. J Laryngol Otol. 2007 Jun;121(6):530-4. doi: 10.1017/S0022215107005877. Epub 2007 Feb 26. PMID: 17319983. Summarized by Jackson Roos, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.com/cme-courses/ and create an account.
Contributor: Sam Killian, MD Educational Pearls: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is an infection of peritoneal fluid that typically occurs in cirrhotic patients Symptoms may include abdominal pain, fever, and/or altered mental status Paracentesis is diagnostic test of choice. Diagnostic criteria includes > 250 polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) or a positive gram stain/culture Treatment is typically a 3rd generation cephalosporin ·30-40% of SBP patients will go into renal failure and SBP associated with sepsis has an ~80% mortality References Dever JB, Sheikh MY. Review article: spontaneous bacterial peritonitis--bacteriology, diagnosis, treatment, risk factors and prevention. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2015 Jun;41(11):1116-31. doi: 10.1111/apt.13172. Epub 2015 Mar 26. PMID: 25819304. MacIntosh T. Emergency Management of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis - A Clinical Review. Cureus. 2018 Mar 1;10(3):e2253. doi: 10.7759/cureus.2253. PMID: 29721399; PMCID: PMC5929973. Summarized by Jackson Roos, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.com/cme-courses/ and create an account.
Contributor: Rachael Waterson, PharmD Educational Pearls: Drug shortages have been an ongoing issue since the 2000’s. Improvement was being made; however, several factors have exacerbated the drug supply more recently. According to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Report there are 163 drugs currently on the drug shortage list. Of the 40 drugs critical to treating COVID-19, 18 are on this list. In comparison, according to the American Society of Health-Systems Pharmacists (ASHP), the current drug shortages have limited 29 of the 40 drugs deemed critical to treating COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 has had an impact on the supply and demand for pharmaceuticals and has exposed the vulnerability of the US drug supply chain. The demand for drugs that are specific to treating COVID-19 patients have increased, while supply has been impacted due to closed factories, shipping delays, trade limitations, and export bans. Supply has been further limited due to COVID-19 heavily affecting 2 of the 3 main drug manufacturer areas of the world, India and Italy. In order to combat drug shortages, the US federal government developed a contract with a company to make generics in short supply during the pandemic. There is also current discussion about creating an “America First” program to increase domestic production of active pharmaceutical ingredients. How pharmacists combat drug shortages: Re-assess the definition of need; need vs convenience of a medication. Look to see if there is another product, manufacturer, vial size, or drug concentration of that exact medication that can be substituted. Substitution of a similar drug if possible. Placing restrictions as to which patients can receive medications, who can prescribe medications and medication use dependent on location in the hospital. References: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. (2020). Drug Shortages. ASHP. https://www.ashp.org/Drug-Shortages?loginreturnUrl=SSOCheckOnly. FDA Drug Shortages. accessdata.fda.gov. (2020, October). https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/drugshortages/. Summarized by Emily S Mack, MSBS, OMS III | Rachael Waterson, PharmD
Dr. Tsipis sits down with colleague Dr. Ricky Dhaliwal for some insightful conversation regarding the differences between academic and community settings as well as the various roles of advocacy in medicine. Time Stamps 00:23 Banter and introductions 2:41 upbringing in 1st generation immigrant Indian household 14:30 losing culture as 2nd gen immigrant 7:32 Balancing family and work with a two doc family 8:32 President of EMRA 10:42 Working in academia vs community 13:29 New job advice 15:55 Nick talks about being the product of your environment and needing to be challenged 20:42 Advocacy in medicine 25:49 Legislative advocacy 27:27 Advocacy for medicine in COVID 29:44 Who are the most influential figures in your career? 33:23 What is your teaching style 38:05 What does the future hold for you?