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September 9, 2019
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review whether the use of gelatin colloids and hydroxyethyl starch (HES) result in renal tubular injury during shock.
September 2, 2019
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review Cuterebra infections and the occurrence of systemic manifestations of this disease. Many of you have probably seen a case, or at least seen some pretty wild online videos, in which a large, alien-like Cuterebra organism is dramatically pulled out of some poor patient. If not, I recommend that you watch this video immediately!
August 26, 2019
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss canine allergies and what you need to know about Cytopoint. Today's podcast is sponsored by Zoetis. Can you use Cytopoint at the same time as Apoquel? How do I improve compliance with my pet owners? How do I work with our veterinary team to best communicate to pet owners?
August 19, 2019
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review two different protocols for trilostane administration in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH). Hyperadrenocorticism, or Cushing's disease, is one of the most common endocrinopathies of dogs. As you all may remember, naturally occurring Cushing's disease comes in two flavors: pituitary-dependent or adrenal-dependent. Approximately 85% of dogs with Cushing's disease have the pituitary-dependent form (Feldman). While a number of treatment strategies are available, trilostane has become an increasingly popular and effective first-line therapy (Alenza). Trilostane is a competitive inhibitor of 3B-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (Potts). Personally, I need a translation for what on earth that means! Basically trilostane inhibits an enzyme essential to the synthesis of both glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids in the adrenal cortex. The manufacturer recommends a trilostane starting dose of 2.2-6.7 mg/kg/day. So, Cho et al wanted to evaluate this in a study entitled Efficacy of Low- and High-Dose Trilostane Treatment in Dogs (<5 kg) with Pituitary-Dependent Hyperadrenocorticism. In this study, the safety and efficacy of two alternative protocols of trilostane administration were evaluated in dogs with PDH. The first was a twice-daily low-dose protocol, and the second was a once-daily high-dose protocol.
August 12, 2019
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review whether or not echocardiographic phenotype of canine dilated cardiomyopathy differs based on canine diet types. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in dogs occurs secondary to predominantly genetic causes, but also occurs secondary to systemic disease, toxins, infectious disease and nutritional causes. DCM in association with taurine and L-carnitine deficiency is well documented and has the potential for reversal of myocardial dysfunction with appropriate supplementation.
August 5, 2019
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Amy Butler, DVM, MS, DACVECC on her recent study entitled "The influence of quotations uttered in emergency service triage traffic and hospitalization (Quiet)" which investigated the use of the word "Quiet." Does saying it increase ER caseload (It doesn't, but I still want to kick your butt when you say it).
July 29, 2019
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Jane Shaw, DVM, PhD, from Colorado State University on the role of client communication around euthanasia. "Chunk and check" and empathy are important when communicating with pet owners.
July 22, 2019
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Joshua Stern, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVIM (Cardiology), Associate Professor at UC Davis on the correlation between exotic, grain-free diets and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Is it taurine deficiency related? Why are we seeing this in Golden retrievers? Tune in to learn more!
July 15, 2019
In this VETgirl online veterinary podcast, we interview Dr. Katie Tolbert, DVM, DACVIM, PhD at Texas A&M University. In veterinary medicine, we often use sucralfate, omeprazole, and H2 blockers like famotidine. Do they help reduce gastric acid? Should we be using them in every single patient in the hospital? Should we be using antacids in cats and dogs, and what about long term?
July 8, 2019
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Amy Newfield, CVT, VTS (ECC) reviews how to be the best veterinary team member. By avoiding gossip mongering, and being a respectful veterinary professional, we can all bring our A-game to the veterinary team!
June 24, 2019
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the use of propofol during euthanasia in veterinary medicine. Perhaps one of the most important aspects of our veterinary oath is to relieve animal suffering. I know when I first entered practice after graduation I was surprised by the frequency in which I was performing euthanasia on companion animals. I soon realized how important this service is for the pets and for the pet parent and the impact my skills and my medicine can have on this last shared experience between pet parent and pet. We all tend to develop our own routine way of performing euthanasia be it a designated room with dim lighting, perhaps quiet music, maybe some fluffy pillows and beds - anything that might promote peace and relaxation. As for the medical side of euthanasia, we understand that the overdose of pentobarbital derivative used during euthanasia provides a peaceful transition for the pet. But outwardly, it may not always look so peaceful to the pet parent. During euthanasia, I'll admit that I'm always holding my breath that during the euthanasia the pet will simply close their eyes (which we know doesn't typically happen), fall asleep, and take his last breath peacefully. But sometimes we encounter rather unfortunate - albeit rare - side effects of the medication or of the body's response to illness and the medication. For starters, we know that the eyes of animals will typically remain open to some degree. And, just as in humans, animals can have involuntary or voluntary release of bladder and bowel function, some may vocalize from dysphoria or disease, and some may exhibit muscle fasciculations. As an attempt to minimize these adverse events, we can reach for adjunctive medications to mitigate these unwanted responses. Propofol is a popular adjunctive anesthetic used in euthanasia, but to date, no veterinary studies have been conducted to evaluate whether this added anesthesia agent has significant benefits when used in euthanasia.
June 17, 2019
Today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast is brought to us by Kelsey Cantu at VetIQ Staffing. For more information, go to VetIQ Staffing.
June 10, 2019
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Amy Newfield, CVT, VTS (ECC) reviews how to triage the canine and feline reproductive emergencies. When should a patient come in? Is it a dystocia? What do you need to know and make sure your front desk CSR know when triaging phone calls?
June 3, 2019
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we'll review the latest guidelines for a condition we see just about every day in the vet hospital -; urinary tract infections (UTIs). This is based off the most current International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases (ISCAID) guidelines for the diagnosis and management of bacterial urinary tract infections in dogs and cats . This is a 2-part podcast, so check out last week's episode for Part 1!
May 27, 2019
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we'll review the latest guidelines for a condition we see just about every day in the vet hospital -; urinary tract infections (UTIs). This is based off the most current International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases (ISCAID) guidelines for the diagnosis and management of bacterial urinary tract infections in dogs and cats . This is a 2-part podcast, so tune in next week for Part 2!
May 13, 2019
In this VETgirl online veterinary podcast, we interview Dr. Jessica Quimby, DVM, PhD, DACVIM on the use of gabapentin in cats. With it's growing popularity due to the Fear Free movement and opioid crisis, veterinary professionals are using it more in cats. What dose should we use, and can we use this daily in cats? What about in cats with chronic kidney failure? In this podcast, we discuss if transdermal gabapentin can be safely used in cats, and how to administer dose this capsule.
May 6, 2019
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the use of long-term famotidine in dogs. How many of you have seen patients that take famotidine for weeks, months, or even years? It certainly raises the question, what impact does such chronic use have on our patients? Is it even effective? So, Tolbert et al out of University of Tennessee wanted to evaluate this in a study entitled Repeated famotidine administration results in a diminished effect on intragastric pH in dogs. In this study, they evaluated the effect of repeated famotidine administration on gastric pH and serum gastrin levels over a period of 2 weeks. The authors hypothesized that the impact of famotidine on gastric pH would diminish over time, and that its effect on day 13 would be less potent than its impact on day 1.
April 29, 2019
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Kathryn Meurs, DVM, PhD Diplomate ACVIM (Cardiology), Professor and Associate Dean for Research and Graduate Studies at North Carolina State University, on feline cardiomyopathy and what's new, including the use of genetics to help diagnose the disease.
April 22, 2019
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Laurel Redding, VMD, PhD, Assistant Professor of Epidemiology at Penn Vet and Dr. Stephen Cole, VMD, MS, DACVM and Lecturer in Microbiology at Penn Vet on their recent study entitled Pet owners' knowledge of and attitudes toward the judicious use of antimicrobials for companion animals. Do pet owners trust it when it comes to dispensing antimicrobial therapy? Can cat owners even get the medications into their cat? What's the compliance? Should we be still treating UTIs with 2 weeks of antibiotics?
April 15, 2019
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Jessica Quimby, DVM, PhD, DACVIM on the use of mirtazipine in cats. What dose should we use, and can we use this daily in cats? What about in cats with chronic kidney failure? In this podcast, we discuss if transdermal mirtazipine can be safely used in cats, and how to administer it.
April 8, 2019
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we're excited to have Amy Newfield, CVT, VTS discuss what's new in veterinary medicine with intravenous catheters. We use them all the time but is there anything we need to change when putting them into our veterinary patients? We're excited to welcome Amy to our VETgirl team!
April 1, 2019
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review how to be a more efficient veterinarian. The more efficient you can be, the better your work life balance. In VETgirl's opinion, live by these 5 rules:
March 25, 2019
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the prevalence of bacterial contamination in 50% dextrose vials. How worried should we be about using multi-dose dextrose bottles?
March 18, 2019
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Marieke H. Rosenbaum DVM, MPH from the Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts on a recent study entitled Perceptions of support and policies regarding pregnancy, parenting, and family planning during veterinary training at United States veterinary medical training institutions. As someone who personally struggled with infertility, losses, and failed IVF, this study rang true to me. What do we need to know about family planning in veterinary medicine? Can you be pregnant in veterinary school or in training and survive?
March 11, 2019
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review the effect of client complains on veterinary internists. And let's be real here. This podcast doesn't just apply to veterinary internists. It applies to everyone single one of us in the field of veterinary medicine. This is a subject near and dear to VETgirl's heart, as wellness, self care and our emotional wellbeing as veterinary professionals is really important to us. That's why we hired Jeannine Moga, MA, MSW, LCSW, as our Chief Happiness Officer in 2019.
March 4, 2019
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review cats undergoing thoracic trauma. We know that cats truly have 9 lives, but is there evidence to prove this? What's the prognosis for cats that undergo surgical management of their thoracic trauma? Lux et al wanted to evaluate this in a multi-institutional, retrospective study entitled "Factors associated with survival to hospital discharge for cats treated surgically for thoracic trauma."
February 25, 2019
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Robert Goggs, BVSc, PhD, DACVECC, DECVECC on a recent study that he published entitled Retrospective evaluation of 4 methods for outcome prediction in overt disseminated intravascular coagulation in dogs (2009-2014): 804 cases. In this retrospective study performed at Cornell University, medical records were reviewed to assess dogs that had a coagulation panel performed (including coagulation times, D-dimer concentration, antithrombin activity, fibrinogen concentration, and platelet count). These cases were then scored for DIC, with the goal to identify if there were any predictors for outcome. How specific and sensitive are some of these coagulation tests?
February 18, 2019
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Brooke Fowler, DVM, MS, DACVIM (Oncology) and Dr. Cassandra Prpich, BVSC, MANZCVS (SAIM), DACVS-SA, ACVS FELLOW, Surgical Oncologist, of Compassion First's Aspen Meadow Veterinary Specialists in Longmont, CO. What do I need to know before removing that neoplastic dermal mass or before doing that splenectomy? When should I consider referring the case to a surgical oncologist instead?
February 11, 2019
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review aspiration-related respiratory disorders in dogs. Much of our veterinary medical information gathered over time has first stemmed from information available in human medicine. So, Nafe et al wanted to review canine aspiration-related respiratory disorders that are already classified conditions in human medicine. In a publication called Aspiration-related respiratory disorders in dogs, the authors provide us a literature review on aspiration-related respiratory disorders in dogs, and describe the similarities between canine and human conditions. By drawing comparisons between known human conditions and canine conditions, we may be able to more effectively treat these veterinary conditions or mitigate damage caused to the respiratory tract.
February 4, 2019
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we discuss pleural effusion in cats. If you've heard me lecture before, I always say that the top 3 differentials for pleural effusion in cats are: CHF, CHF, and cancer. But is it true?
January 28, 2019
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we discuss the dreaded retained surgical sponge left in the body cavity of a veterinary patient. After all, we've all done it or seen it, right? When in a rush to get to work, to finish paperwork, or to get home to our families and pets, “slowing down” is not a welcomed notion in our veterinary lives. But perhaps we need to make a conscious effort to do just that. Maybe your client showed up late for an appointment, or maybe your already booked day just got rocked by the emergency GDV that came through your doors, but we all know that when we rush, our attention to detail is compromised…and then, we can potentially overlook important things... like details such as how many sponges did we use during that spay or emergency surgery?!
January 21, 2019
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Brooke Fowler, DVM, MS, DACVIM (Oncology) of Compassion First's Aspen Meadow Veterinary Specialists in Longmont, CO. What's new in veterinary oncology? What do I need to know before referring my cancer patient to an oncologist? And what is electrochemotherapy?
January 14, 2019
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review the risk of anesthesia-related complications in brachycephalic dogs - just how worried should we be when it comes to anesthetizing them?
January 7, 2019
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Heidi Lobprise, DVM, Diplomate AVDC on dental health month in veterinary medicine. How can be better communicate to pet owners the importance of dental health? Should we be sending home all dental prophys with antibiotics? What's the best pain medication post-dental procedure? Tune in to learn more. Thanks to Zoetis for sponsoring this podcast!
December 31, 2018
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the safety and efficacy of leflunomide in dogs. It seems as if leflunomide is a medication that some clinicians use quite routinely, whereas others have limited or even no experience using. Regardless of which category you fall into, don't fret! Today we will review some basic information about this medication, as well as a recent retrospective study evaluating its use. Leflunomide is an immunosuppressive medication that is used to treat a variety of immune-mediated conditions in dogs, including but not limited to immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA), immune-mediated polyarthritis (IMPA), immune-mediated conditions of the central nervous system (CNS), and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It works by inhibiting the synthesis of pyrimidine and thereby inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation (Plumb). Past studies have evaluated this medication at starting doses of 3-4 mg/kg/day, which showed positive response rates at this dosing (Gregory, Colopy, Fukushima).
December 24, 2018
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we discuss the veterinarian's attire in the emergency hospital and how our clients perceive what we wear. As we all know, first impressions are powerful. And in the emergency setting, one of our more challenging goals is to gain the trust of the client (as we've never seen them before!). How we stand in the room, the tone of our voice, our eye contact, and how we look to the client are all tools that can be just as powerful as the medical information in our heads when it comes to connecting with our client. So do you like to don a white coat and business casual clothes for your ER shift? Or perhaps, you're like me, and enjoy not having to think beyond putting on a pair of scrubs before each shift? So, McGiffon et al wanted to evaluate this in a study called "Clients' attitudes toward veterinarians' attire in the small animal emergency medicine setting."
December 17, 2018
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Melina Zimmerman, DVM, DAVCAA, a board-certified anesthesiologist at Red Bank Veterinary Hospital. If anesthesia isn't your think, you want to tune in. In this podcast, we review how to manage the canine or feline veterinary patient while under anesthesia, including what to do when that patient is having arrhythmias, hypotension or hypercapnia. We also review pain management and oral analgesics, oral sedation and sedation options for aggressive patients.
December 10, 2018
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review liver toxicity secondary to azathioprine administration in dogs. Azathioprine is an immunosuppressive medication that has been gaining popularity in the veterinary community. It is a purine analog that can take up to 6 weeks to take effect (Plumb), and it is often used as a treatment for immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA), immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (ITP), immune-mediated polyarthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and other immune-mediated conditions. Some practitioners express discomfort using azathioprine due to its potential for adverse effects, such as hepatotoxicity and bone marrow toxicity. But how worried should we be?
December 3, 2018
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Deborah Silverstein, DACVECC, Professor in Critical Care at PennVet on the use of central venous jugular catheters in critically ill dogs and cats. How hard are they to put in, what do they cost, and are there complications associated with placement?
November 26, 2018
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss the effect of refrigeration on clinical canine urine samples and quantitative bacterial culture.
November 19, 2018
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Lisa Radosta, DACVB, Board-certified Veterinary Behaviorist at Florida Veterinary Behavior Service on the use of trazodone in cats. Most veterinary professionals advocate for sedation for stressed cats as a modality to help with "Fear Free;" however, what drugs should we be reaching for, and what the pros and cons are of some of these sedatives? Should we be reaching for gabapentin or trazodone?
November 12, 2018
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as an exciting new treatment for diarrhea secondary to canine parvovirus (CPV). You may be wondering, what is an FMT? It is actually a fairly simple procedure that is being performed with increasing frequency in both human and animal medicine. The procedure involves transferring fecal material from a healthy donor dog to a recipient patient in order to restore a healthy microbial population (Chaitman). We know that there is a vast and complex array of microorganisms populating the gastrointestinal tract, and maintenance of this microbiota is critical for overall intestinal health (Khanna). A number of primary gastrointestinal diseases, medications (particularly antibiotics), and other systemic health issues can disrupt this complex population, contributing to clinical decline in our patients.
November 5, 2018
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the use of D-dimers in predicting the presence or absence of pulmonary emboli in dogs. Pulmonary embolism (PE) refers to an obstruction of a pulmonary vessel, which could be caused by a blood clot, tissue, infectious material, parasites, foreign bodies, or other material (Goggs). There are a variety of diseases known to increase risk for PE's in our canine patients, including immune-mediated diseases such as IMHA, protein-losing nephropathies, hyperadrenocorticism, neoplasia, sepsis, and cardiac disease, as well as the use of certain medications like steroids. Unfortunately, the diagnosis of PE can be challenging due to non-specific clinical and radiographic changes. Probably many of us have seen an IMHA patient become acutely dyspneic with minimal radiographic changes, a situation where you may highly suspect a PE! In human medicine, CT or pulmonary angiography are the gold standard for antemortem diagnosis (Torbicki), but there have been various studies in both humans and in dogs evaluating the use of D-dimers as a tool to rule out a PE.
October 29, 2018
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the diagnostic utility of cytologic examination of renal fine-needle aspirates from dogs and the use of ultrasonographic features to inform cytologic diagnosis. When we do renal aspirates while we're ultrasounding our veterinary patients, is it useful and helpful?
October 29, 2018
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Andrew Hillier, BVSc, MANZCVS, DACVD, Medical Lead for Dermatology at Zoetis on the diagnostic approach for itchy dogs (particularly those with atopic dermatitis!). Tune in to learn how we should be communicating with our pet owners, what mistakes we want to avoid with the atopic dog, and the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to atopy.
October 22, 2018
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the incidence of hospital-acquired anemia in the hospitalized canine and feline patient. In the veterinary patient, the presence of anemia results in decreased oxygen carrying capacity, which directly affects all tissues by diminishing function and impairing tissue healing. It other words, it results in decreased oxygen deliver (DO2).
October 15, 2018
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, co-founders Dr. Justine Lee, DACVECC, DABT and Dr. Garret Pachtinger, DACVECC discuss a few life hacks for new veterinary graduates. Just graduated from veterinary school and need some advice? Here, we share all, from living like a broke vet student, how to pay off your veterinary student debt faster, why it's important to make (some) money, how to work on work-life balance, and more!
October 8, 2018
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Valerie Parker, DACVIM, DACVN on what's new in veterinary nutrition. Is there a role for Vitamin D with chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients? Should we be supplementing calcitriol in our canine and feline patients with CKD? What's new?
October 1, 2018
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Sharon Grayzel, DVM, MPH, DACVPM about canine leptospirosis. What's new? Is it that "classic" icteric, azotemic farm dog that comes down with lepto now? Or is it the smaller, 15 pound terrier that gets it? How prevalent is it and what do we do about this zoonotic disease? What's the best way to test for it? Learn it in this VETgirl podcast!
September 24, 2018
In today's VETgirl online veterinary podcast, we review the use of steroids and whether or not steroids truly have detrimental effects on the heart. We've been taught since our early years in veterinary school to have a healthy respect for glucocorticoid use. Understandably, there are many unwanted side effects to steroids such as weight gain, immune system suppression, and polyuria, to name the most commonly encountered. But there are also many medical uses for steroids such as intentional immune suppression and to combat inflammatory processes. In cats, we have produced evidence that long-acting glucocorticoid use can precipitate development of congestive heart failure (CHF). To date, we do not have published supportive evidence for this in dogs. So, Masters et al out of Iowa State University wanted to evaluate this in a prospective study called "Effects of short-term anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid treatment on clinicopathologic, echocardiographic, and hemodynamic variables in systemically healthy dogs." to see what cardiovascular effects anti-inflammatory doses of glucocorticoids would have on canine patients with no preexisting structural heart disease.
September 17, 2018
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Marc Seitz, DABVP on his recent publication about feline urethral obstruction called "Evaluation for association between indwelling urethral catheter placement and risk of recurrent urethral obstruction in cats." Does outpatient FUO therapy work (e.g., sedation, unblocking, etc.) and when do we see increased risk of recurrent FUO in cats?
September 10, 2018
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, co-founders Dr. Justine Lee, DACVECC, DABT and Dr. Garret Pachtinger, DACVECC discuss OPP: outpatient parvovirus. First, how do we ideally treat canine parvovirus? What is the "Colorado protocol?" Does outpatient parvovirus work? Learn from two criticalists who have seen a lot of parvo!
September 3, 2018
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Richard T. Marconi, PhD about canine Lyme disease. Are we seeing an increased prevalence of tick spread and Lyme disease? What can we as veterinary professionals be doing about it in terms of recognition and prevention (e.g., preventative and vaccination)? Learn it in this VETgirl podcast!
August 27, 2018
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education Part 2 podcast, Dr. Garret Pachtinger, DACVECC and Dr. Justine Lee, DACVECC, DABT review what you should have learned if you didn't go to the Hill's Global Symposium 2018 (HGS2018) this year. From improving our pet owner compliance, to avoiding common myths about geriatric nutrition, to social media and Dr. Google, find out more in this VETgirl podcast. Better yet, get over 30+ hours of free, RACE-approved CE by viewing the HGS2018 here, thanks to Clinician's Brief. Check out last week for Part 1!
August 20, 2018
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Dr. Garret Pachtinger, DACVECC and Dr. Justine Lee, DACVECC, DABT review what you should have learned if you didn't go to the Hill's Global Symposium 2018 (HGS2018) this year. From advances and updates in nutritional management of chronic kidney disease, to diabetes mellitus updates, to refreshing your brain on Vitamin D and RAS, find out more in this VETgirl podcast. Better yet, get over 30+ hours of free, RACE-approved CE by viewing the HGS2018 here, thanks to Clinician's Brief. Tune in next week for Part II!
August 13, 2018
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review total prostatectomy for the treatment of prostatic carcinoma in dogs.
August 6, 2018
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Annette Litster, BVSc, MACVSc Senior Veterinary Specialist at Zoetis, on Canine Influenza (CIV) H3N2 and H3N8. Learn what clinical signs are seen with CIV, and how to diagnose it (e.g., serology vs. PCR). Learn if your canine patient population should be vaccinated for it, and if this vaccine is for just "social dogs." This VETgirl is brought to you, thanks to sponsorship from Zoetis, makers of Vanguard CIV H3N2/H3N8 bivalent vaccine.
July 30, 2018
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the prevalence of subclinical bacteriuria, bacterial cystitis and pyelonephritis in dogs with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
July 23, 2018
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Erica Behling-Kelly, DVM, PhD, DACVP from Cornell University, on her recent publication entitled "A commercial soy‐based phospholipid emulsion accelerates clot formation in normal canine whole blood and induces hemolysis in whole blood from normal and dogs with inflammatory leukograms." Does the use of lipid in the form of total parenteral nutrition (TPN), partial parenteral nutrition (PPN), or intravenous lipid emulsion (20%) potentially cause detrimental adverse effects in dogs - particularly those with inflammation - when used? Check out this VETgirl podcast to learn more!
July 16, 2018
Ah, the mucocele. The disease that internists want to surgical treat, and the ones that surgeons want to medically manage.
July 9, 2018
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review thoracic trauma in dogs. In the emergency room, we criticalists frequently see patients that have sustained both blunt and penetrating thoracic trauma from a variety of causes, with the most common being vehicular trauma and bite wounds. Thankfully, the prognosis for trauma is generally fair to good, with a reported 90% survival (Hall). However, in patients requiring thoracic surgery, the prognosis is worse. Previous studies have shown a range of short-term mortality rates ranging from 10-44%.
July 2, 2018
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review uroabdomen in dogs. We've also talked about how to diagnose uroabdomen in a previous VETgirl blog here.
June 25, 2018
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Julien Guillaumin, DACVECC, DECVECC, on his recent study entitled "Influence of hang time and location on bacterial contamination of intravenous bags in a veterinary emergency and critical care setting." We all hang bags of fluids around the veterinary clinic and ER/ICU so we can use it as a flush or to dilute drugs. However, should we be doing this? In this study, the authors wanted to evaluate the risk and rate of bacterial contamination of fluid and ports in intravenous bags. Overall, the authors looked at 90 bags of LRS, punctured them daily 3X/day for 10 days. They found bacterial growth in 31.1% of the 198 injection ports overall, and 6.7% of the fluid bags hung in ER were contaminated by Day 7. Listen to find out just how long you should be hanging that bag of fluids, and why hanging it near the veterinary sink isn't ideal!
June 18, 2018
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the characteristics and risk factors for intervertebral disk extrusions (IVDE) in Pekingese dogs. If you're about to see a Pekingese dog with back pain, check out this VETgirl podcast to learn what you need to know about in this breed of dog.
June 11, 2018
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the use of ultrasound for the diagnosis of cardiogenic pulmonary edema in dogs and cats. Nowadays, we're doing more and more FAST (Focused Assessment of Sonography in Trauma) ultrasounds in the ER setting, and it's great (and easy) for diagnosing cavital effusion (e.g., hemoabdomen, pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, etc.). But can it be easily used for lung ultrasound (LUS) to detect pathology (or water) in the lung? Does it work to diagnose cardiogenic pulmonary edema?
June 1, 2018
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the prevalence of thrombocytopenia in cats. Before you blame it "platelet clumping," let's make sure it's not from something else!
May 28, 2018
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the use of tramadol in dogs. Does it work? Well, you may have heard over recent years that tramadol has been put on the hot plate, receiving much attention for its role as an analgesic in canine patients. The reason for doubting tramadol's pain relief properties stems from the pharmacokinetics of the drug and differences between human and canine pain receptors. Tramadol is a weak pure-mu opioid agonist. It is metabolized to O-desmethytramadol, which is the metabolite responsible for tramadol's ability to inhibit the reuptake of noradrenaline and serotonin in nerve endings, thus making these two neurohormones more available to continue blocking pain signals. However, dogs produce very little of this active metabolite. Perhaps this difference in metabolism is why clinicians have trended towards recommending higher doses of tramadol (doses ranging from 1 to 10 mg/kg). Previous studies have been complicated by a placebo effect when measuring analgesic outcomes, and the placebo effect is a difficult bias to overcome when creating a study design. So, Budsberg et al out of University of Georgia (Go, Dawgs!) wanted to evaluate tramadol as an analgesic in the treatment of chronic osteoarthritis in a study entitled Lack of effectiveness of tramadol hydrochloride for the treatment of pain and joint dysfunction in dogs with chronic osteoarthritis. In this study, the authors aimed to evaluate objective measurements of pain relief in orthopedic dysfunction associated with tramadol use in dogs suffering from osteoarthritis.
May 21, 2018
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Leah Cohn, PhD, DACVIM, on the approach to the infectious coughing dog. In this podcast, she reviews what Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease (CIRD) is, what the diagnostic work up is, and how to treat these patients. She'll also review what vaccines are available for the different etiologies, and how it's more than "just kennel cough." Check out this important Guideline and Recommendation from the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine here:
May 14, 2018
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss whether certain breeds are more predisposed to aspiration pneumonia or not.
May 7, 2018
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review short-term and long-term outcomes for overweight dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture - do they all need surgery?
April 30, 2018
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review whether or not brief echocardiographic training is beneficial for noncardiology veterinarians. Will it help house officers or general practitioners in the ability to diagnose cardiac emergencies like pericardial effusion, congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy and more?
April 23, 2018
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss whether you detect pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade on chest radiographs in veterinary medicine.
April 16, 2018
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss anemia in veterinary patients. Anemia is a common, yet frustrating disease process and is defined as a deficiency of red blood cells or hemoglobin (Hb). Anemia can be categorized as regenerative or non-regenerative, and it is important to obtain a thorough history and a careful and systematic diagnostic approach to anemia. In this podcast, we review the 3 major causes of anemia:
April 9, 2018
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Dr. Garret Pachtinger, board certified emergency and critical care specialist and co-founder of VETgirl, reviews the diagnostic approach to hypoalbuminemia in dogs and cats. Hypoalbuminemia is a common problem seen by the small animal veterinarian. It is important to understand that albumin is the major determinant of oncotic pressure (i.e., otherwise known as colloidal osmotic pressure or "COP"). This pressure is the main force that holds fluid within the vascular space.
April 2, 2018
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review whether or not you can thaw your unit of Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) in the microwave versus in the more traditional warm-water bath.
March 26, 2018
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, VETgirl Co-Founder Dr. Garret Pachtinger, DACVECC reviews part 2 of treatment of the endocrine emergency in dogs and cats: hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS). In the previous VETgirl podcast on HHS, we reviewed the subtle differences of patients with HHS as compared to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), HHS criteria, and common clinical signs.
March 19, 2018
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, VETgirl Co-Founder Dr. Garret Pachtinger, DACVECC reviews hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS) in dogs and cats.
March 12, 2018
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the use of compounded itraconazole in cats - can you use it?
March 5, 2018
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review Dr. Jim Dahle, MD, FACEP of White Coat Investor. VETgirl has to admit: we're addicted to his podcasts (for iOs or Android). In this podcast, we interview him on how to tackle the debt-to-income ratio in veterinary medicine, whether you should consider buying a small business or starting a corporation, how to live like a broke resident, how to set up a backdoor ROTH IRA, and whether or not you should charge to that credit card versus max out your employer's 401K match! Tune in to get financially savvy!
February 26, 2018
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Jeannine Moga, MA, MSW, LCSW, clinical social worker and veterinary social worker, discusses the prevalence of suicide in veterinary medicine. Why is our veterinary field so predisposed, and what can we do to increase our resilience and self care?
February 19, 2018
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Dr. Garret Pachtinger, DACVECC (VETgirl, COO) discusses common reproductive emergencies.
February 12, 2018
Lidocaine is a sodium channel blocker that is widely used in both large and small animal medicine as a local anesthetic, analgesic, and as a class 1B antiarrhythmic. A perhaps less common application for this medication in small animal medicine is as a gastrointestinal promotility agent in cases of ileus. The effects of lidocaine on improving the clinical signs of ileus in post-operative horses (1) and humans (2) have already been documented. However, what about dogs? So, Johnson et al out of the University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine wanted to evaluate the effect of lidocaine on gastrointestinal motility in dogs. The authors aimed at measuring the effects of lidocaine CRI's at two different doses on the gastrointestinal transit times of healthy adult canines as compared to saline CRI controls (3).
February 5, 2018
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the effect of venipuncture quality on thromboelastography. Now, if you've never heard of thromboelastography or TEG, you'll need to know that it's the best way to detect for hypercoagulability. Keep in mind that your PT/PTT test for hypocoagulability, not HYPER-coagulability. Unfortunately, TEG is really only available at academic (e.g., veterinary school) settings. So, if you have a TEG machine (or you're an emergency critical care or internal medicine resident), pay careful attention!
January 29, 2018
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review atrial fibrillation in medium- to large-sized dogs. Are there any other prognostic factors can we look at when it comes to heart disease? Is the presence of atrial fibrillation a prognostic indicator in certain dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valvular Degeneration (MMVD) and congestive heart failure?
January 22, 2018
In today's VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review whether or not venous blood gas parameters (such as anion gap, base excess, lactate, etc.) predict survival in veterinary patients. When animals are initially presented to the emergency room, the extent of their condition often cannot be fully assessed without additional diagnostics. Is there a way we can handle questions from pet owners regarding the financial investment in their pet's medical treatment (such as prognosis and anticipated costs of medical care) based on evidence-based medicine? We strive to look for indicators in our physical examination findings and in our initial diagnostic work up (e.g., preliminary lab work or quick assessment tests) to help bolster our understanding of the patient's prognosis, but presently veterinary medicine is greatly lacking in these indicators of mortality and disease severity. In the veterinary emergency room, blood gases are a quick and easy piece of lab work that can be obtained relatively quickly at the time of triage for cats and dogs. So, Kohen et al out of University of California at Davis wanted to look at the information that can be obtained off a simple blood gas analysis for possible predictors of mortality. In this retrospective study, they looked at plasma lactate concentrations, pH, base deficit, and anion gap in both cats and dogs, and looked for any correlation of these values to an increased in mortality risk.
January 15, 2018
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we interview Dr. Ciara Barr. Dr. Barr is a lecturer in the anesthesia department at the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine.
January 8, 2018
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review an "EPIC" study called "Effect of Pimobendan in Dogs with Preclinical Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease and Cardiomegaly: The EPIC Study -; A Randomized Clinical Trial" by Boswood et al. This was a huge study that was conducted at dozens of different institutions (both academia and private practice) around the world and was undertaken by dozens of cardiologists.
January 1, 2018
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the survival time of dogs with congestive heart failure... but add a unique twist to this... the effect of revenue. This sounds strange, but keep listening.
December 18, 2017
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review OPP: outpatient parvovirus treatment. Does it work?
December 11, 2017
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, Dr. Justine Lee, DACVECC, DABT and Dr. Garret Pachtinger, VMD, DACVECC review their top 10 pet peeves in veterinary medicine. Tune in to check out what peeves to avoid! Do you have any? Comment below!
December 4, 2017
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Martha Smith-Blackmore, DVM (VETgirl's internmate from the MSPCA-Angell Memorial Animal Hospital). She's an animal welfare expert and the President of Forensic Veterinary Investigations, LLC. Many in the veterinary profession may not be aware of this job opportunity, which poses a unique way of protecting animals!
November 27, 2017
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the prevalence of heartworm disease in cats in the United States and Canada. Now, you may think that heartworm disease is pretty rare, depending on where you live (or practice), but you need to know about this disease. What clinical signs are seen with it? How do you diagnose it?
November 20, 2017
We all know how difficult it can be to make a cat vomit when we actually need for them to vomit. Veterinary emergency hospitals are encouraged to stock formulations of apomorphine for inducing emesis in dogs, but sadly this medication doesn't seem to work in cats. The theorized reason behind the feline's lack of robust emetic response to apomorphine stems from anatomical differences in their chemoreceptor trigger zone receptors where they are believed to favor more of the alpha-2 receptors over the dopamine receptor abundance that dogs exhibit. For this reason, most hospitals carry xylazine, an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist more commonly used in large animal anesthesia. However, if you've ever tried to make a cat vomit using xylazine, their response is variable and many will not vomit when appropriate doses are used. Clinically, I've always felt like it only works half the time in my poisoned cat patients!
November 13, 2017
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we interview Dr. Deborah Silverstein, Associate Professor in Critical Care at University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine on a study called Retrospective evaluation of the prevalence, risk factors, management, outcome, and necropsy findings of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome in dogs and cats: 29 cases (2011-;2013). In this study, the authors evaluated dogs and cats with Acute Lung Injury (ALI) or Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), and assessed overall prevalence, treatment, and outcome of these critically ill patients.
October 30, 2017
In this VETgirl online veterinary CE podcast, we review the outcome and survival in dogs with sick sinus syndrome, a life-threatening bradyarrhythmia.
October 23, 2017
In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we review the difference between dogs and cats in the veterinary setting. As the old saying goes… ”cats are not small dogs!” The question remains, what does that really mean? They can both be small. They can both be fluffy. Catch them at the wrong time and they can both bite! But what does it mean when we say, “cats are not small dogs”? What we are referring to is the medical response to disease as we compare our feline and canine patients. Our feline patients have unique physiologic responses to shock, medications, fluid therapy, and even neoplasia as compared to the canine patient. As a result, it is crucial that the veterinary team understands these unique feline characteristics!
October 16, 2017
How do you assess your feline patients for shock at the time of triage?
October 9, 2017
In today's VETgirl online veterinary continuing education podcast, we discuss aortic thrombotic disease (what we'll call ATD from now on). We know that patients with ATD develop this due to Virchow's Triad - the combination of vascular endothelial injury, altered blood coagulability and changes in blood flow. Common underlying causes resulting in vascular endothelial injury include trauma, dirofilarial infection, hypotension, vasculitis, inflammation, acidosis, hypoxemia, dextrose fluid administration, arteriosclerosis (more in humans), and immune mechanisms. Altered blood coagulability may be due to platelet dysfunction (or hyperfunction), or any factor along the coagulation cascade or fibrinolytic system that has gone awry. Lastly, changes in blood flow may be due to blood stasis (e.g., an enlarged atrium), compressive lesions, trauma, or turbulence.
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