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October 11, 2019
Vaping associated lung injury (VALI) has become a frequent topic in the news in the United States (US). In this episode we review the epidemiology, presumed pathophysiology, and new recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in the US. Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer FOAMcast.org References: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). 2019; 68(40) Layden JE, Ghinai I, Pray I, et al. Pulmonary Illness Related to E-Cigarette Use in Illinois and Wisconsin - Preliminary Report. N Engl J Med. 2019; Sept 6. Maddock SD, Cirulis MM, Callahan SJ, et al. Pulmonary Lipid-Laden Macrophages and Vaping. N Engl J Med. 2019;381:1488-1489.
September 30, 2019
In this episode we briefly review hyperkalemia and the principles of emergent treatment. Then we explore, in-depth, the role of insulin and dextrose including the incidence of hypoglycemia and pearls to reduce this side effect. Pearls: 10-20% of patients treated with insulin/dextrose for hyperkalemia get hypoglycemic Consider giving 5 units insulin instead of 10 units Check the glucose for hours (dextrose lasts
September 1, 2019
We discuss the US Food & Drug Administration's black box warning for droperidol and the evidence behind this warning. We then discuss the use of butyrophenones such as droperidol and haloperidol for the treatment of agitation, headaches, nausea and vomiting, and gastroparesis/cannabinoid hyperemesis.   Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer 
July 31, 2019
We discuss the coagulation test thromboelastography (TEG) / Rotational Thromboelastometry (ROTEM), reviewing the evidence behind the use of the tests as well as the clinical implications. Show notes and graphics FOAMcast.org Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
July 9, 2019
In this episode, we discuss important and "hot" articles thus far in 2019. These articles include: Testing for pulmonary embolism in pregnant patients Van der pol LM, Tromeur C, Bistervels IM, et al. Pregnancy-Adapted YEARS Algorithm for Diagnosis of Suspected Pulmonary Embolism. N Engl J Med. 2019;380(12):1139-1149. Langlois E, Cusson-dufour C, Moumneh T, et al. Could the YEARS algorithm be used to exclude pulmonary embolism during pregnancy? Data from the CT-PE-pregnancy study. J Thromb Haemost. 2019; In Press Asymptomatic bacteriuria guidelines from the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) Nicolle LE, Gupta K, Bradley SF, et al. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria: 2019 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2019. Dosing of benzodiazepines in seizures Sathe AG, Tillman C, Coles LD, et al. Underdosing of benzodiazepines in patients with status epilepticus enrolled in Established Status Epilepticus Treatment Trial. Acad Emerg Med. 2019 Jun 4. Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) in trauma patients Joseph B et al. Nationwide analysis of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta in civilian trauma. JAMA Surg 2019. Mar 20. Mortality following opioid overdose Weiner SG, Baker O, Bernson D, Schuur JD. One-Year Mortality of Patients After Emergency Department Treatment for Nonfatal Opioid Overdose. Ann Emerg Med. 2019; In Press Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
May 24, 2019
We review the entity formally known as pseudoseizures and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES), now referred to as psychogenic non-epileptic attacks (PNEA).  We discuss the history of PNEA as well as relevant literature on the diagnosis and treatment of this entity. Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
April 30, 2019
We review myths and reality in the management of patients with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD)  Are these patients typically opioid seeking? (No) If the patient appears comfortable I should withhold proper analgesia. (No). Should IV fluids be a routine part of the cocktail for vaso-occlusive pain episodes? (No) We also review common emergencies in sickle cell disease that include Infections Acute chest syndrome Anemia (Aplastic crisis, splenic sequestration) Ischemia Strokes Avascular necrosis Renal, pulmonary, splenic infarctions Vaso-occlusive pain episodes Thanks for listening! Lauren Westafer and Jeremy Faust
March 29, 2019
We are at #SMACC in Sydney, Australia, thanks to the Rosh Review, delivering updates from the conference to your earbuds. Advocacy in Emergency Medicine - Esther Choo and Hugh Montgomery Mechanical CPR vs Manual CPR - Ken Milne vs Salim Rezaie Super sick massive GI bleeds and balloon tamponade - Sara Gray Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
March 28, 2019
 We are at SMACC in Sydney, Australia, thanks to the Rosh Review, delivering updates from the conference to your earbuds. Today we cover resuscitation pearls. Bougie vs Standard Stylet in emergency department (ED) rapid sequence intubation (RSI) - Brian Driver vs Rich Levitan Rocuronium vs Succinylcholine Debate - Billy Mallon and Reuben Strayer The Crashing Asthmatic - Haney Mallemat Thanks for listening! Lauren Westafer and Jeremy Faust
March 27, 2019
We are at #smacc in Australia thanks to the Rosh Review! The opening session this morning was amazing and we can't do it justice on the podcast. Gill Hicks (@MadForPeace), a victim in the July 7, 2005 bombing attack on a London train spoke on how impactful everyone in the healthcare delivery system can be (from medics to detectives to nurses to physical therapists to physicians). Dr. Dara Kass delivered a powerful talk on vulnerability, responsibility, and lack of knowledge even in a super health care literate individual.....what it means to be a provider and a patient (and a mom and a medical home for the family and a wife) in her story of donating part of her liver to her son. David Carr on anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis  Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is the most common cause of encephalitis in young people (
March 27, 2019
We co-hosted (with John Vassiliadis) the SMACC EM Updates half-day conference. We had amazing speakers. Salim Rezaie spoke on TXA for Everything, Ken Milne spoke on hot papers from 2018, and we learned about when ultrasound may be helpful in pediatric lumbar punctures. In addition, Jeremy spoke on what is usual care in sepsis and Lauren spoke on pulmonary embolism: the next generation. In this short podcast we highlight some of our other talks. Aidan Baron (@Aidan_Baron) on Prehospital Updates in Cardiac Arrest This talk focused on focusing on things that are most likely to make a difference in OHCA (bystander CPR and defibrillation) rather than on fun interventions like intubation and adrenaline (epinephrine). Aidan suggests that the future debates and questions in OHCA will be largely philosophical - what outcomes do we care about: neuro intact survival or ROSC or survival?  Jabre P, Penaloza A, Pinero D, et al. Effect of bag-mask ventilation vs endotracheal intubation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation on neurological outcome after out-of-hospital cardiorespiratory arrest a randomized clinical trial. JAMA -2018;319(8):779–87. Benger JR, Kirby K, Black S, et al. Effect of a Strategy of a Supraglottic Airway Device vs Tracheal Intubation During Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest on Functional Outcome: The AIRWAYS-2 Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2018;320(8):779-791. Wang HE, Schmicker RH, Daya MR, et al. Effect of a Strategy of Initial Laryngeal Tube Insertion vs Endotracheal Intubation on 72-Hour Survival in Adults With Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2018;320(8):769-778 Barbra Backus on the future of the HEART score Modified Heart Score (redefining the T or troponin based on newer assays) results in a NPV of 99.8% and classifies 48% of patients as low-risk. Clinically Relevant Adverse Cardiac Events (CRACE) is way less common than major adverse cardiac events (MACE). HEART score of ≤3 ? CRACE is 0.05% Hot Literature in 2019 Lemkes JS, Janssens GN, van der Hoeven NW, et al. Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest without ST-Segment Elevation. N Engl J Med. 2019;NEJMoa1816897 Pluymaekers NAHA, Dudink EAMP, Luermans JGLM, et al. Early or Delayed Cardioversion in Recent-Onset Atrial Fibrillation. N Engl J Med .2019;NEJMoa1900353.
February 18, 2019
Supraventricular Tachycardia Treatment Controversies - We discuss the treatment of SVT and the controversy of treatment with adenosine vs calcium channel blockers
January 31, 2019
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently released another warning for fluoroquinolones, this time regarding aortic dissection and aneurysm.  We review the evidence behind this warning We then review the ACEP clinical policy on aortic dissection covering risk scores, d-dimers, and management of aortic dissection Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
December 27, 2018
We cover the clinical policy from the American College of Emergency Physicians - Clinical Policy: Critical Issues in the Evaluation and Management of Emergency Department Patients With Suspected Non–ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes In adult patients without evidence of ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome, can initial risk stratification be used to predict a low rate of 30-day major adverse cardiac events? Use HEART score ≤3  In adult patients with suspected acute non–ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes, can troponin testing within 3 hours of emergency department presentation be used to predict a low rate of 30-day major adverse cardiac events? Negative conventional troponins at 0,3 hrs in low risk patients High sensitivity troponin: undetectable initial troponin, no need for another. Negative initial troponin, repeat at 2 hours In adult patients with suspected acute non–ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes in whom acute myocardial infarction has been excluded, does further diagnostic testing (eg, provocative, stress test, computed tomography [CT] angiography) for acute coronary syndrome prior to discharge reduce 30-day major adverse cardiac events? No need to get provocative testing before discharge or within particular time frame Should adult patients with acute non–ST-elevation myocardial infarction receive immediate antiplatelet therapy in addition to aspirin to reduce 30-day major adverse cardiac events? antiplatelet therapy additional to aspirin can be given or delayed Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
November 20, 2018
We discuss Medicated Assisted Treatment (MAT) for opioid use disorder (OUD) including buprenorphine initiated from the emergency department. This show was sponsored by Figure 1, a free open access application for providers using images and cases Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer References: Berg ML, Idrees U, Ding R, Nesbit SA, Liang HK, and McCarthy ML. Evaluation of the use of buprenorphine for opioid withdrawal in an emergency department. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007;86(2-3):239-44. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2006.06.014. Mattick RP, Breen C, Kimber J, Davoli M. Buprenorphine maintenance versus placebo or methadone maintenance for opioid dependence. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(2):CD00220 Pierce M, Bird SM, Hickman M, Marsden J, Dunn G, Jones A, and Millar T. Impact of treatment for opioid dependence on fatal drug-related poisoning: a national cohort study in England. Addiction. 2016;111(2):298-308. doi:10.1111/add.13193. Clark RE, Samnaliev M, Baxter JD, and Leung GY. The evidence doesn't justify steps by state Medicaid programs to restrict opioid addiction treatment with buprenorphine. Health Aff (Millwood). 2011;30(8):1425-33. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2010.0532 Martin SA, Chiodo LM, Bosse JD, Wilson A. The Next Stage of buprenorphine Care for Opioid Use disorder. Annal of Internal Medicine
October 22, 2018
 The Free Open Access Medical Education (FOAM) world is often obsessed with magnesium. In this show we address the use of magnesium for various applications. Magnesium for Acute Atrial Fibrillation with Rapid Ventricular Response (RVR) Bouida et al. LOw dose MAGnesium sulfate versus HIgh dose in the early management of rapid atrial fibrillation: randomised controlled double blind study. Acad Emerg Med. 2018 Jul 19. Ho KM, Sheridan DJ, Paterson T. Use of intravenous magnesium to treat acute onset atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis. Heart. 2007;93(11):1433-40. Davey MJ, Teubner D. A randomized controlled trial of magnesium sulfate, in addition to usual care, for rate control in atrial fibrillation. Ann Emerg Med. 2005;45(4):347-53. Magnesium for Migraine Corbo J, Esses D, Bijur PE, Iannaccone R, Gallagher EJ. Randomized clinical trial of intravenous magnesium sulfate as an adjunctive medication for emergency department treatment of migraine headache. Ann Emerg Med. 2001;38(6):621–7. Bigal ME, Bordini CA, Tepper SJ, Speciali JG. Intravenous magnesium sulphate in the acute treatment of migraine without aura and migraine with aura. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Cephalalgia. 2002;22(5):345-53. 1Cete Y, Dora B, Ertan C, Ozdemir C, Oktay C. A randomized prospective placebo-controlled study of intravenous magnesium sulphate vs. metoclopramide in the management of acute migraine attacks in the Emergency Department. Cephalalgia. 2005;25(3):199–204. Shahrami A, Assarzadegan F, Hatamabadi HR, Asgarzadeh M, Sarehbandi B, Asgarzadeh S. Comparison of therapeutic effects of magnesium sulfate vs. dexamethasone/metoclopramide on alleviating acute migraine headache. J Emerg Med. 2015;48(1):69–76. Orr SL, Friedman BW, Christie S, Minen MT, Bamford C, Kelley NE, et al. Management of Adults with Acute Migraine in the Emergency Department: The American Headache Society Evidence Assessment of Parenteral Pharmacotherapies. Headache. 2016;56(6):911–40. Magnesium for Acute Asthma Exacerbation Griffiths B, Kew KM. Intravenous magnesium sulfate for treating children with acute asthma in the emergency department. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;4:CD011050. Kew KM, Kirtchuk L, Michell CI. Intravenous magnesium sulfate for treating adults with acute asthma in the emergency department. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(5):CD010909.   Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
October 16, 2018
In this episode we highlight key articles in Emergency Medicine that came out, thus far, in 2018. D'souza et al. Effects of prophylactic anticholinergic medications to decrease extrapyramidal side effects in patients taking acute antiemetic drugs: a systematic review and meta-analysis Emerg Med J. 2018;35(5):325-331. Driver et al. Effect of Use of a Bougie vs Endotracheal Tube and Stylet on First-Attempt Intubation Success Among Patients With Difficult Airways Undergoing Emergency Intubation: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2018;319(21):2179-2189. Atkinson PR, Milne J, Diegelmann L, et al. Does Point-of-Care Ultrasonography Improve Clinical Outcomes in Emergency Department Patients With Undifferentiated Hypotension? An International Randomized Controlled Trial From the SHoC-ED Investigators. Ann Emerg Med. 2018; In press. Perkins GD et al. A Randomized Trial of Epinephrine in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest. N Engl J Med 2018; 379:711-721 Meltzer et al. Effect of Tamsulosin on Passage of Symptomatic Ureteral Stones: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2018 Aug 1;178(8):1051-1057 Kabrhel et al Multicenter Evaluation of the YEARS Criteria in Emergency Department Patients Evaluated for Pulmonary Embolism. Acad Emerg Med. 2018;25(9):987-994   Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
October 3, 2018
We bring you pearls from the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) 2018 Scientific Assembly in San Diego, CA. In this episode we highlight: Myths in diagnostic imaging Torsion ultrasound is insensitive CTPA for PE is not perfect. There are false positives AND false negatives Myths in pediatrics Response to antipyretics does NOT make viral infection more likely Juice in kids with gastroenteritis is a great way to rehydrate them Kids don't have to wait 24 hours on antibiotics for strep throat before returning to school, if they got 50 mg/kg amoxicillin prior to 5pm the night before, they're fine Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
October 3, 2018
We bring you pearls from the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) 2018 Scientific Assembly in San Diego, CA. In this episode we highlight: Problems with CYA (Cover your a$$) medicine such as admissions Problems with lactate, procalcitonin, and other biomarkers Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
October 1, 2018
We bring you pearls from the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) 2018 Scientific Assembly in San Diego, CA. In this episode we highlight: Severe pediatric brain injury, tips for management and preventing badness Aortic dissection diagnostics Chest tube pearls Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
September 24, 2018
We cover a JAMA Clinical Reviews podcast on lyme disease, including some myth-busters. *Doxycycline can be used, safely, in kids < 8 years old *Testing for lyme is a mess because : (1) we test patients with ultra low probability of disease (2) we test patients who shouldn't be tested (i.e. have erythema migrans) (3) the tests are a pain to interpret *Lyme disease is spreading further south and west in the US, into Canada, and it's also increasingly found in Europe. We then delve into core content for Rosen's, Tintinalli, and the IDSA 2006 guidelines. Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer FOAMcast.org    
August 27, 2018
We review the American Urological Association guidelines on penile fracture and priapism. We supplement this with core content from Tintinalli and Rosen's Emergency Medicine.
July 20, 2018
We review one of the editors top picks from Annals of Emergency Medicine, which are free for 6 months from issue release.  The article covered in this podcast is Waldman et al, is a study of tetracaine in corneal abrasions. We also review commonly encountered corneal emergencies: Corneal abrasions Corneal ulcers and herpes keratoconjunctivitis. Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
June 18, 2018
Show notes at FOAMcast.org We cover the 2017 IDSA/SHEA guidelines on clostridium difficile (c diff). We then review core content on c diff including risk stratification and treatment using Rosen's and Tintinalli as guides. Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
May 16, 2018
Workup for pulmonary embolism (PE) is common (perhaps too common) in the United States. The American College of Emergency Physicians has released a clinical policy on pulmonary embolism. We cover this policy as well as core content on PE risk stratification and "rule out" Thanks for listening, Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
May 1, 2018
We cover the emergency department care of lactating patients including Medications during breastfeeding - who should "pump and dump"? (spoiler: very few people, check LactMed or InfantRisk) Mastitis & Breast Abscesses Emergency Department Support Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
April 1, 2018
Show notes at FOAMcast.org We have a special April 1st show - the Faust-Westafer Central Theorem of Emergency Medicine. Listen for details Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
March 21, 2018
We review select articles from 2017 that are important or that got people talking including: Sadeghirad B et al. Corticosteroids for treatment of sore throat: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ. 2017;358:j3887. Barniol et al.Levocetirizine and Prednisone Are Not Superior to Levocetirizine Alone for the Treatment of Acute Urticaria: A Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial. Ann Emerg Med. 2018;71(1):125-131.e1 Wilson SS, Kwiatkowski GM, Millis SR, Purakal JD, Mahajan AP, Levy PD. Use of nitroglycerin by bolus prevents intensive care unit admission in patients with acute hypertensive heart failure. Am J Emerg Med. 2017;35(1):126-131. Hu et al  Variability in Interpretation of Cardiac Standstill Among Physician Sonographers. Ann Emerg Med. 2017 Sep 1. S0196-0644(17)31376-8 Clattenburg et al Point-of-care ultrasound use in patients with cardiac arrest is associated prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation pauses: A prospective cohort study. Resuscitation. 2018;122:65-68. Hinson JS et al. Risk of Acute Kidney Injury After Intravenous Contrast Media Administration. Ann Emerg Med. 2017 Healey CD et al. Asymptomatic cervical spine fractures: Current guidelines can fail older patients. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017;83(1):119-125. Crowell et al. Accuracy of Computed Tomography Imaging Criteria in the Diagnosis of Adult Open Globe Injuries by Neuroradiology and Ophthalmology. Acad Emerg Med. 2017;24(9):1072-1079. Talan et al. Subgroup Analysis of Antibiotic Treatment for Skin Abscesses. Ann Emerg Med. 2018;71(1):21-30.  
February 24, 2018
We tackle some free open access medical education from the CDC on the flu vaccine, including: Recommendations that individuals with any severity of egg allergy (including anaphylaxis) receive the flu vaccine. The only modification that needs to occur is patients with a history of true anaphylaxis to eggs should be given the flu shot in a setting where they can be monitored by a healthcare professional if needed (i.e. a doctor's office). It is very unlikely that the flu vaccine causes Guillan-Barre Syndrome (GBS). If there is any increase as a result of the flu shot, it is 1-2 in 1,000,000. We then dive into CDC recommendations on oseltamivir as well as contradictory data from the most recent Cochrane review. Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
January 14, 2018
Over at the Pulmcrit blog, Dr. Josh Farkas has proposed the use of phenobarbital monotherapy for the treatment of ethanol withdrawal and we cover this protocol. We then dive into core content alcohol withdrawal using Rosen’s Emergency Medicine (9th ed) Chapter 142 , Tintinalli’s Emergency Medicine (8th ed) Chapter 292, and Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies (10th ed) Chapter 81  as guides. Thanks for listening, Lauren Westafer and Jeremy Faust
December 5, 2017
We discuss ultrasound diagnosis of pneumoperitoneum using a podcast from 5MinSono. Then we delve into core content on gastritis, PUD, and helicobacter pylori using Rosen's Ch 78 and Tintinalli's Ch 79 as guides. Thank for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
November 20, 2017
We cover Free Open Access Medical Education (FOAM) on mass casualty incidents, an unfortunate reality in the current United States climate (and elsewhere).  There is a must read (truly, emergency providers really should read this) in EP Monthly by Dr.Kevin Menes, “How One Las Vegas ED Saved Hundreds of Lives After the Worst Mass Shooting in U.S. History”. He details his process in running the Emergency Department that evening. We cover pearls from other great resources include a post on the St. Emlyn's blog, "Mass Casualty Incidents: Lessons from the AAST" and a free EBMedicine article on ballistic injuries Core Content: Chapter 192 Rosen's, Chapter 5 Tintinalli - Mass Casualty Incident Triage Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
November 4, 2017
We bring you pearls from the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) 2017 Scientific Assembly. We cover in-flight emergencies, need for contrast enhanced CT scans, bronchiolitis and sucrose for infants Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
October 30, 2017
We bring you pearls from the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) 2017 Scientific Assembly. Pearls on H. Pylori from: It's Alimentary - Poo-Pourri of Conditions From the Mouth to Rectum - Dr. Adebayo, Dr. Batra, Dr. Bavokek Emerging Infections: Zika and Its Friends - Dr. Joan Noelker High Yield Toxicology - Dr Erickson, Dr Traub, Dr. Perrone  
October 30, 2017
We cover top pearl from the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) Scientific Assembly 2017. Dr. Michael Winters - Critical Care Updates Dr. Tim Horeczko - Pediatric Pitfalls Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
October 8, 2017
We cover some high yield, important, or frequently discussed recent articles. Antibiotics and abscesses - Daum et al FAST in hemodynamically stable patients -  Holmes et al Haloperidol in gastroparesis - Roldan et al and Ramirez et al Ignoring PERC - Buchanan et al Steroids in non-asthma/COPD lower respiratory tract infections - Hay et al Gender pay gap persists in academic EM (and it's not due to hours, rank, or roles) - Madsen et al
September 15, 2017
We review this blog post by Bryan Hayes, an ED pharmacist (@PharmERToxGuy), on the use of physostigmine in anticholinergic toxicity. We then review anticholinergic toxidrome using Rosen's, Tintinalli's, and Goldfrank's as a guide. Thanks for listening! Lauren Westafer and Jeremy Faust
September 1, 2017
We review gastroparesis treatment with haloperidol including a recent study by Ramirez and colleagues. This study had significant methodologic limitations but provides some interesting insight into a practice that many providers have adopted - using haloperidol for gastroparesis. A tiny RCT by Roldan and colleagues also looked at this practice and found promising results, although the study was very small.  Haloperidol has also been used in cannabinoid hyperemesis but literature on this is limited to case reports/series. We also cover core content on biliary pathology using Tintinalli and Rosen's as guides. Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
August 18, 2017
We review recent discussions on the accuracy of cuff blood pressures including a meta-analysis Picone et al published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology discussing the accuracy of cuff blood pressures. We cover core content on hypertensive emergencies and asymptomatic markedly elevated blood pressure using the ACEP clinical policy on hypertension, Rosen's (9th ed) Chapter 74 "Hypertension," and Tintinalli (8th ed),  Chapter  57 “Systemic Hypertension” Chapter 59 “Aortic Dissection and Related Aortic Syndromes” as guides Show notes on FOAMcast.org Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren WEstafer
July 31, 2017
We cover Free Open Access Medical Education on opioids. The Poison Review podcast reviews papers on the opioid epidemic, including a paper by Rudd et al demonstrating an increase in opioid-related deaths over the past five years as well as the following paper by Shah and colleagues. The Dantastic Mr. Tox and Howard, a new podcast on the scene, also covers multiple topics on opioids, including common misconceptions of tramadol. Then we cover core content on opioid overdose and withdrawal using Rosen's Emergency Medicine (9th ed) Chapter 156 and Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine (8th ed), Chapter 186 as a guide.   Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
June 29, 2017
We are in Berlin for #dasSMACC and have lots of pearls to share from the speakers at this amazing conference.  Talks will be released for free on the SMACC podcast over the next year, but this podcast holds some pearls that we thought couldn't wait. We cover... One of the major themes of #dasSMACC has been - we are more overconfident in our knowledge, skills, ability, and good behavior than we actually demonstrate. We cover the Dunning-Kruger effect and how to help combat the notion that "this happens to other people, not me."  Drs. Jacob Avila and Ben Smith on Airway Ultrasound Dr. James Rippey on Point of Care Ultrasound Incidental Findings Dr. Jack Iwashyna on Critical Care Prognosis Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
June 28, 2017
We are in Berlin for #dasSMACC and have lots of pearls to share from the speakers at this amazing conference.  Talks will be released for free on the SMACC podcast over the next year, but this podcast holds some pearls that we thought couldn't wait. We cover... Dr. Leanne Harnett on Pulmonary Embolism with Right Heart Thrombus (PE with RHT) Dr. Michele Domico on Pediatric Cardiology Emergencies Dr. Haney Mallemat (@CriticalCareNow) on Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE) during Cardiac Arrest   Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
June 27, 2017
We deliver pearls from the first day of #dasSMACC in Berlin. We cover talks by Dr. Brian Burns on trauma, Dr. David Carr on endocarditis, Dr. Paul Young on statistics, and Dr. Jess Mason on sickle cell vaso-occlusive crisis. Check out foamcast.org for show notes and pictographic summaries. Thanks for listening and for the Rosh Review for sending us! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
June 5, 2017
We interrupt our normal core content for this update: Texting amongst medical professionals is ubiquitous; however, given patient privacy laws, many wonder, what is permissible? We discuss a recent article in JAMA by Brian Drolet on this very topic as well as some basic professionalism pearls. Show notes at FOAMcast.org Thanks for listening, Lauren Westafer and Jeremy Faust
May 15, 2017
We cover FOAM on the WOMAN trial of tranexamic acid (TXA) in post-partum hemorrhage including BroomeDocs, EMlitofnote, and The Bottom Line Then we delve into core content on non-pregnant vaginal bleeding using Rosen's and Tintinalli's as a guide. Show notes are available at FOAMcast.org Thanks for listening! Lauren Westafer & Jeremy Faust
May 6, 2017
We cover Free Open Access Medical Education (FOAM) from a recent Emergency Medicine Cases podcast and First10inEM blog post by Dr. Justin Morganstern regarding urinary tract infections (UTIs).   This podcast and blog tackle common issues in UTI diagnosis and treatment, including the following points: UTI is a clinical diagnosis, a dirty urine does not mean the patient has a UTI Urinalyses are more complicated to interpret than we probably understand Then we cover core content from Rosen’s Emergency Medicine (8th ed), Chapter 99; Tintialli's Emergency Medicine (8th ed), Chapter 91; IDSA Guidelines for Treatment and Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
April 26, 2017
 A recent study in Academic Emergency Medicine by Hughes and colleagues, looks at the potential clinical relevance of having emergency physicians sign ECGs read "normal" by the computer software.  FOAM reviews of this article can be found here: Dr. Smith's ECG blog Emergency Medicine Literature of Note REBEL EM Then we review ischemia on ECGs, including STEMIs as well as a dive into ischemic T waves Check out FOAMcast.org for more show notes and images. Thanks for listening! Lauren Westafer and Jeremy Faust
March 31, 2017
We cover an episode of The Skeptic's Guide to Emergency Medicine that covers a validation study of the Step by Step approach to pediatric fever.  This approach to infants with a fever
March 12, 2017
We cover a post from the fantastic St. Emlyn's team which breaks down a recently published article in Annals of Emergency Medicine comparing diazepam with placebo in patients with acute low back pain.  We recommend you read the full text of the article by Friedman et al. We delve into core content on red flags in back pain and spinal epidural abscess using Rosen's Emergency Medicine and Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine Chapter 279 as a guide. visit FOAMcast.org for show notes and more information. Thanks for listening! Lauren Westafer and Jeremy Faust
February 28, 2017
  We cover Free Open Access Medical Education (FOAM) on Contrast-Induced Nephropathy (CIN).  Recent interes The American College of Radiology (ACR) Manual on Contrast Induced Nephropathy This Emergency Medicine Literature of Note post covers the AMACING  trial, which looks at intravenous fluid administration (0.9% NaCl) versus usual care in patients "at risk" for CIN undergoing contrast-enhanced CT scan.   The study found a difference of -0.1% (95% CI -2.25 to 2.06), which was below the non-inferiority margin. Prior literature shows similar results, with no clear-cut efficacy from prevention strategies for CIN. This post by Dr. Joel Topf (nephrologist @kidneyboy) on the Precious Bodily Fluids blog discusses a nephrologist's take on CIN. EM topics post on fluids in CIN. Core Content We then delve into core content on genitourinary trauma using Rosen’s Chapter 47 and Tintinalli’s Chapter265 as a guide. Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
February 18, 2017
Ultrasound is gaining popularity in assisting lumbar punctures (LPs). We review this technique as well as Free Open Access Medical Education (FOAM) from the following sites:  5 Min Sono, Sinai EM, and PEM pearls from ALiEM. We then delve into core content on meningitis, encephalitis, and antiNMDA receptor encephalitis using Rosen's Chapter 109 and Tintinalli's Chapters 117 and 174 as a guide. Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer  
January 24, 2017
We cover FOAM on transvenous pacing from Ultrasound Podcast, Dr. Jason Nomura, and Dr. Al Sachetti     Then, we delve into basics on bradycardias using Rosen's Emergency Medicine and Tintinalli's as a guide. Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
January 19, 2017
The Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines were updated, reflecting some changes carried forward from Sepsis 3.0 that was released in 2016. In this podcast we go over some of the updates, many of the recommendations that stayed the same. As a bonus we cover a new study on validation of qSOFA. Show notes at FOAMcast.org Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
January 1, 2017
A lot of good literature came out in 2016 so we wanted to mention a couple of our favorite articles of the year. Sepsis 3.0 Singer M, Deutschman CS, Seymour CW, et al: The Sepsis Definitions Task Force The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3). The quick SOFA score (qSOFA) also came out in hopes it "provides simple bedside criteria to identify adult patients with suspected infection who are likely to have poor outcomes."  It is not part of the sepsis definition  Back Up Head Elevated Intubation Khandelwal et al. Head-elevated Patient Positioning Decreases Complications of Emergent Tracheal Intubation in the Ward and Intensive Care Unit. Anesthesia and Analgesia. Apr 2016. Ketorolac Dose Motov, S, Yasavolian, M, Likourezos, A, et al. Comparison of Intravenous Ketorolac at Three Single-Dose Regimens for Treating Acute Pain in the Emergency Department. .Ann Emerg Med. 2016 Dec 16. Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest Prognostication Jabre et al. Early Identification of Patients With Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest With No Chance of Survival and Consideration for Organ Donation.   Intern Med. 2016 Dec 6;165(11):770-778   Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
December 20, 2016
We review a trick of the trade from Academic Life in Emergency medicine for temporomandibular joint (TMJ)  dislocation, the extra-oral reduction as well as other methods of TMJ reduction. We delve into core content on dental injuries including fractures, avulsion, luxations, pulpitis and more using Rosen’s Emergency Medicine (8th edition) Chapter 70 "Oral Emergencies" and Tintinalli’s Emergency Medicine (8th edition) Chapter 245 "Oral and Dental Emergencies" as a guide. Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
December 13, 2016
We review a podcast from Dr. Tim Horeczko's Pediatric Emergency Playbook on elbow injuries including identifying normal ossification centers (CRITOE), radial head subluxation, and supracondylar fractures. Then, we delve into core content on other elbow adjacent injuries including elbow dislocations, humerus fractures, and olecranon bursitis using Rosen’s Emergency Medicine (8th edition) Chapter  and Tintinalli’s Emergency Medicine (8th edition) Chapter  as a guide. Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
November 25, 2016
We review a talk by Dr. Sara Gray from SMACC (Social Media and Critical Care) conference in June 2016, Resuscitative hysterotomy, which is the new name for perimortem c-section [1]. In this talk she challenges the "4 minute" rule: if resuscitative efforts following maternal circulatory arrest are unsuccessful, cesarean delivery should be commenced at 4 minutes and completed by 5 minutes to optimize fetal outcome.  Then we delve into core content on pregnancy emergencies using Rosen’s Emergency Medicine (8th edition) Chapter 98and Tintinalli’s Emergency Medicine (8th edition) Chapter 178 as a guide, discussing nausea and vomiting, hyperemesis gravidarum, bacteriuria, and vaginal bleeding in the first trimester. Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
October 31, 2016
The PESIT study in the New England Journal of Medicine stirred up controversy in the FOAM world earlier in October 2016.  In this episode we cover the following posts on this article on pulmonary embolism in syncope: Dr. Rory Spiegel of EMnerd  Dr. Ryan Radecki of EM Literature of Note St. Emlyn's Rebel EM  Then, We delve into core content on syncope usingRosen's Emergency Medicine (8th edition) and Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine (8th edition) Chapter 52   Thanks for listening! -Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
October 19, 2016
We are bringing y'all pearls from ACEP 2016 in Las Vegas. Today we cover Bell's Palsy (are you sure it's not a stroke?), burn dogma, and some hot abstracts of the year. Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
October 18, 2016
We are at ACEP 2016 summarizing the hottest pearls Today we cover placebos in the ED for back pain, nausea, and upper respiratory tract infections as well as atrial fibrillation management controversies and vaccine side effects. Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
October 17, 2016
We bring you highlights from ACEP2016 in Las Vegas. Today we focus on the care of the transgender patient and some pearls on caring appropriately for our diverse patients. We also cover active shooters and lawsuit pearls   Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
October 9, 2016
We cover an incredible ophthalmology resource, OphthoBook.com, by Dr. Tim Roots.  This resource has a free book and excellent free video lectures.  Specifically, we detail a hilarious video on eye exam tricks, especially targeting individuals who "can't see." We previously reviewed eye trauma in this podcast. In this episode, we review ophthalmology basics using Tintinalli’s Emergency Medicine (8e), Chapter 241 Visit FOAMcast.org for more and Rosh Review questions. Thanks for listening!  Jeremy Faust + Lauren Westafer
October 2, 2016
The Free Open Access Medical Education (FOAM)  We cover a post from Dr. Josh Farkas on PULMcrit on lithium toxicity. The key message from the post is: a single serum lithium level doesn't necessitate dialysis, despite a recommendation from the EXTRIP working group  to initiate dialysis in patients with a lithium level > 5 mEq/L [1].  Dr. Farkas advocates for aggressive management in asymptomatic patients with chronic lithium toxicity and patients without impaired renal function. Core Content We review rhabdomyolysis using Rosen's Emergency Medicine (8e)  Chapter 160 and Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine (8e), Chapter 181.   Show notes at FOAMcast.org Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust & Lauren Westafer
September 6, 2016
We review a FOAM post by Dr. Matthew MacPartlin on Rollcage Medic on flying after a pneumothorax. Then we delve into a core content review of altitude sickness, high altitude pulmonary edema, high altitude cerebral edema, and altitude related problems using Tintinalli and Rosen's Emergency Medicine as a guide. Thanks for listening! -Jeremy Faust & Lauren Westafer
August 23, 2016
We cover several excellent post on rashes, including: Paucis Verbis Approach to Rashes - ALiEM Emergent Diagnosis of the Unknown Rash from EMJ What's That Rash? - EMdocs Next, we dive into core content on platelet problems including problems caused by drugs, immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP/idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) using Tintinalli Chapter 233 (8th ed) and Rosen's Chapter 122 (7th ed) as a guide.   Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
August 8, 2016
We cover ultrasound guided pericardiocentesis using the posts from EMin5, CoreEM, and the Ultrasound Podcast. Then, we delve into core content on the pericardium using Rosen’s (8th ed) Chapter 82 and Tintinalli (8th ed) Chapter 55 covering pericardial effusions, pericarditis, and myocarditis.   Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust & Lauren Westafer
July 17, 2016
We cover a post by Dr. Rory Spiegel, EMNerd: The Case of Differing Perspectives, on the results of the ATACH-2 trial on blood pressure control in intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). This study sought to determine the safety and efficacy of the Population: adults (>18 y/o) with ICH on CT scan, GCS ≥ 5 and
July 1, 2016
Just in time for the new interns, we answer the most common question asked of us - our favorite resources to use on shift. Free Open Access Medical Education (FOAM) exists in forms that are suitable for self-study or function as resources and those that are easy to use resources to consult on shift, Just In Time (JIT) Resources. We review our favorite FOAM JIT resources.
June 26, 2016
We cover a Scancrit post on the Back Up Head Elevated (BUHE) intubation position.  This post details a multicenter retrospective observational study by Khandelwal et al in Anesthesia & Analgesia.  Intubating with the head elevated (ear to sternal notch) and the back of the bed up reduces complications. We delve into core content on the esophagus using Rosen’s (8th ed) Chapter 71 and Chapter 77 in Tintinalli (8th ed). We discuss dysphagia, food impaction, and esophagitis. Thanks for listening! JEremy Faust and Lauren WEstafer
June 16, 2016
ITUNES OR LISTEN HERE We cover pearls from smaccDUB (Social Media and Critical Care Conference in Dublin, Ireland), Day 3. We are here thanks to the Rosh Review. Dr. Scott Weingart - "Post-Intubation Sedation" Analgesia first. Try a hydromorphone 1mg push while you're waiting for the fentanyl drip. The endotracheal tube is uncomfortable. Minimize sedation. There's this principle: eCASH: early Comfort using Analgesia, minimal Sedatives and maximal Humane care [1].  Sedation: go for dexmedetomidine if you have it (but it's expensive) or propofol. This is supported by the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) Pain, Agitation, and Delirium guidelines [2]. Be careful with rocuronium.  The long duration of rocuronium means that you can't assess for pain or discomfort so you must be responsible and get these Dr. David Carr - "The Aorta Will #!&?% You Up" Dr. Kathleen Thomas - "Oh Sh**! They’re bombing the hospital!" We should not need a website entitled STOPBOMBINGHOSPITALS.ORG but, unfortunately, over the past 4 years, 400 hospitals have been bombed. This passionate, wrenching talk is a "must see" and "must listen" when the free talks are released on the SMACC podcast over the course of the next year. ive use in the emergency department. Emergency medicine journal : EMJ. 30(11):893-5. 2013. [pubmed] Imamura H, Sekiguchi Y, Iwashita T et al. Painless Acute Aortic Dissection. Circ J. 75(1):59-66. 2011. [article] Diercks DB, et al. Clinical policy: critical issues in the evaluation and management of adult patients with suspected acute nontraumatic thoracic aortic dissection. Ann Emerg Med. 2015 Jan;65(1):32-42.e12. PMID: 25529153. Hagan PG, Nienaber CA, Isselbacher EM. The International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD): new insights into an old disease. JAMA. 283(7):897-903. 2000. [pubmed]
June 15, 2016
#smaccDUB day 2 Dr. Reuben Strayer - “Disruption, Danger, and Droperidol: Emergency Management of the Agitated Patient."   Dr. Strayer presented a brilliant talk on dealing with the quintessential Emergency Medicine patient - the undifferentiated acutely agitated patient. These patients are high risk and require emergent stabilization and resuscitation. Dr. Haney Mallemat - "The PEA Paradox" The typical way we think about PEA, the "H's and T's," is overly complicated. Further, we are horrendous at pulse palpation (see this for more), and so what we think is PEA may not actually be PEA.  Dr. Mallemat proposed QRS duration as one way to think about PEA, although this has limitations. Dr. Michele Dominico - "How Usual Resuscitative Maneuvers Can Kill Paediatric Cardiac Patients" Interventions we jump to in sick patients - oxygenation, ventilation, vasopressors - these can kill pediatric patients with cardiac pathology. She gave examples of some high yield pearls in these already terrifying patients. EM Literature update by Drs. Ashley Shreves and Ryan Radecki Antibiotics for uncomplicated diverticulitis? May not be necessary Antibiotics for appendicitis? Maybe an option for some, but it may just be delaying an appendectomy. Tamsulosin for ureteral stones? Not necessarily indicated unless there are large (>5mm), distal stones. Interesting and Ridiculous Research Pearls from Drs. Ashley Shreves and Ryan Radecki Perception of dyspnea and pulmonary function tests change with stress - and rollercoaster rides.  Rietveld S, van Beest I. Rollercoaster asthma: when positive emotional stress interferes with dyspnea perception. Behaviour research and therapy. 45(5):977-87. 2007. [pubmed] Cured pork for epistaxis? Possibly. Researchers will try everything, especially if it involves bacon. Humphreys I, Saraiya S, Belenky W, Dworkin J. Nasal packing with strips of cured pork as treatment for uncontrollable epistaxis in a patient with Glanzmann thrombasthenia. The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology. 120(11):732-6. 2011. [pubmed]
June 14, 2016
We are at SMACC in Dublin - thanks to the Rosh Review, an excellent board review question bank. Here are some of our favorite pearls. Do We Make Saves? Dr. Mervyn Singer "Is Survival Predetermined in the Critically  Ill?" Many critical care studies are negative, but in some cases this may be because critically ill patients don't have a uniform prognosis. Dr. Singer argues that some people may be "destined to die" and some may be "destined to live."  So, it's not really us "saving the patient", it's just the math playing out. Interventions may be harmful or futile in one group but beneficial in the other.  For example, Dr. Singer references the CORTICUS trial of steroids in septic shock. This was a negative trial.  Dr. Singer asserts that some evidence (of not great quality), purports that the sickest patients could benefit from steroids, while this same intervention could be deleterious in the healthier ones. Problem: many of the studies that go back and re-analyze these groups looking at the sickest or least sick patients? They perform subgroup analyses, a form of data dredging that must be taken with a huge grain of salt. Favorite Pearls Dr. Suzanne Mason - "Acute Care of the Elderly" Hospital admission may not benefit geriatric patients - interdisciplinary interventions involving nurses, consultants, pharmacists, physical therapy may be best. If there is a single, free intervention that providers can do it's assessing for polypharmacy. Polypharmacy in the elderly is a huge problem.  Check the patient's medication list and beware adding new medications that may not be absolutely necessary. Dr. Victoria Brazil - "So You Think You're a Resuscitationist?" The Dunning-Kruger effect is real in medicine and this is why we MUST have and provide feedback.  A review of the Dunning-Kruger effect can be found here.  Essentially, people tend to overestimate what they know (i.e. overly confident in their knowledge). The exception?  Masters tend to underestimate their knowledge. Our perception of reality is very skewed so, again, feedback is crucial. For example, Cemalovic and colleagues found that intubators underestimated the time they took to intubate: they estimated 23.5 seconds on average vs the 45.5 seconds intubation actually took. Additionally, they thought 13% of their patients desaturated during intubation but 23% actually desaturated.  
June 9, 2016
We cover this short video from EMRAP on lateral canthotomies.  This is one of those rare procedures that is vision saving; hence, it is worthy of frequent review. Then, we delve into core content on orbital fractures, hyphemas, and ocular burns using Tintinalli and Rosen's Emergency Medicine as a guide. Show notes and references at foamcast.org Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
May 25, 2016
We review the FOAM video by Dr. Anna Pickens of EMin5.com on "Special Seizures" including hyponatremia, isoniazid toxcitiy, alcohol withdrawal, and eclampsia. Then we review core content on seizures using Rosen's Emergency Medicine and Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Review. Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
May 4, 2016
ALTE is out and BRUE is in. We review the American Academy of Pediatrics guideline on Brief Resolved Unexplained Events (Formerly Apparent Life-Threatening Events) and Evaluation of Lower-Risk Infants 
April 25, 2016
We cover a post by Dr. Seth Trueger (@MDaware) on false positives in the urine drug screen and review limitations of this test.  Then we review some toxicology, including toxicity associated with cocaine and PCP using Rosen's Emergency Medicine (8e) and Tintinalli's (8e) as a guide. Thanks for listening! Lauren Westafer and Jeremy Faust
April 9, 2016
In this episode we cover a post from Dr. Smith's ECG blog investigating ways to read ischemia on a ventricular paced ECG:  A Patient with Ischemic symptoms and a Biventricular Pacemaker. Then we delve into core content on the Sgarbossa/modified Sgarbossa criteria as well as pacers and implantable defibrillators and their complications. Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
March 20, 2016
We cover a podcast from HEFT EMcast  demonstrating that needle decompression at the 2nd intercostal space at the midclavicular line (2ICS MCL) is likely to fail.  They review a systematic review and meta-analysis by Laan et al in 2015 that suggests the fifth intercostal space at the anterior axillary line (5ICS AAL) is less likely to fail. Then we delve into core content on pneumothoraces and empyemas using Tintinalli and Rosen's Emergency Medicine as a guide. Thanks for listening, Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
March 4, 2016
We cover a post from Life in the Fast Lane Research and Reviews (LITFL R&R) #121  featuring a section on the new American Gastroenterology Association (AGA) guidelines on diverticulitis. The game changer?  Antibiotics aren't a requirement in select patients with uncomplicated acute diverticulitis. Then we delve into core content on diverticulosis, diverticulitis, and clostridium difficile using Rosen's Emergency Medicine (8e) and Tintinalli: A Comprehensive Review (7e). Show notes at FOAMcast.org Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
February 21, 2016
We bring you breaking news on the updated sepsis definition from the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. SIRS and Severe Sepsis?   Out. qSOFA (HAT - Hypotension, AMS, Tachypnea)?  In. Septic Shock?  Sepsis + Vasopressors needed to maintain MAP >65 mmHg + Lactate >2 mmol/L (*after adequate fluids)    
February 18, 2016
We cover the Skeptic's Guide to Emergency Medicine Episode 144, "That Smell of Isopropyl Alcohol for Nausea in the Emergency Department." This podcast reviews an article by Beadle et al, an RCT on the use of inhalational isopropyl alcohol for nausea. Then we delve into core content on vertigo using Rosen’s Medicine (8e) and Tintinalli’s Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide  (7e) on all things toxic alcohols   Thanks for listening!Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
January 21, 2016
We cover an EMcrit episode on Semantics of End of Life Discussions with Dr. Ashley Shreves as well as pearls from another favorite episode with her, Episode 93 - Critical Care Palliation.  We can't do these episodes justice summarizing them so listen to them. Key Pearls on moving away from "DNAR" and moving towards "AND" - Allow Natural Death, how to have the conversation, and with whom to have the end of life discussion. Then we delve into core content on vertigo using Rosen’s Medicine (8e) electronic chapter, "End of Life,"  and Tintinalli’s Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide  (7e) Chapter 297 “Death and Dying.” Thanks for listening!Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
January 11, 2016
We cover two bits of FOAM,Emergency Medicine Literature of Note - Dr. Ryan Radecki - on the use of meclizine for vertigo and EMcrit - Dr. Scott Weingart on the HiNTs exam. Then we delve into some of the problems with the HiNTs exam including it can only be performed on patients with continuous vertigo and that external validity is a major issue with HiNTs. Then, we delve into core content on vertigo using Rosen’s Medicine (8e) Chapter 19,  and Tintinalli’s Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide  (7e) Chapter 164 “Vertigo and Dizziness." Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
January 4, 2016
In this special episode we review some of the top items of 2015* David Newman: Opioids for back pain - falling out of favor. Risk stratifying (and testing) low risk chest pain. Haney Mallemat: Peripheral vasopressors may be ready for prime time FAST guided resuscitative thoracotomy (No cardiac activity and no effusion? No thoracotomy). Movement towards less volume in sepsis (ex: in PROMISE trial average patient got 6L over 72 h) Michelle Lin Merging of FOAM with traditional journals  Merging of FOAM resources into conglomerates More medical education FOAM (ex: ICEnet, EMin5) Rob Orman Same as Haney (peripheral vasopressors + FAST in resuscitative thoracotomy) Sexual intercourse 3-4 times per week may aid in expulsion of distal kidney stones. Thanks for listening! Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer *Chosen by people smarter than we are. (nb: Lauren initially wrote "smarter than us," but I fixed it. You're welcome, universe. -JF)
December 22, 2015
In this episode we cover The Skeptic's Guide to Emergency Medicine Episode on Regional Anesthesia for hip and femoral neck fractures. Then we delve into core content on Rosen's and Tintinalli (Rosenalli) on core content pearls on compartment syndrome. Thanks for listening! Jeremy and Lauren
December 8, 2015
We cover Dr. Rory Spiegel's blog EMNERD, covering an article in Chest 2015 by Pivetta et al, discussing the ways lung ultrasound (US) may be far more helpful than the brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in determining heart failure in the dyspneic patient.  Then we delve into likelihood ratios and show notes can be found at FOAMCAST.org Bottom Line, LR of 1 is useless. It doesn't change the likelihood of using the disease. + LR >5 is good, + LR of 10 means that a test is useful and, if positive, patient most likely had the disease - LR 0.2 is ok but a - LR of 0.1 is much more helpful. Using a Fagan nomogran, one can understand how various likelihood ratios (and tests with their known LRs) may affect the post-test probability (i.e. the likelihood the patient has the disease). The utility of tests also depends on the pretest probability.  
November 24, 2015
The FOAM realm has teamed with interest in a randomized trial in the ICU by Semler et al, the FELLOW trial. This week we cover some aspects of this trial, such as statistical power, highlighted in some of the following Free Open Access Medical Education (FOAM) posts   EMCrit The Bottom Line EM Literature of Note St. Emlyn's REBEL EM Then, we delve into core content on epistaxis and sinusitis using Rosenalli (Tintinalli (7e) Chapter 239, “Epistaxis, Nasal Fractures, and Rhinosinusitis.” Rosen’s  (8e) Chapter 75, “Upper Respiratory Infection.", "Otolaryngology") as a guide. Thanks for listening, Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
November 15, 2015
We cover a trick of the trade from Dr. Brian Lin, posted on the Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM site) on hemostasis in finger tip avulsions. Dr. Lin also has his own excellent FOAM site on all things laceration - LacerationRepair.com. We also cover FOAM on dogma of wound care from Dr. Ken Milne's The Skeptic's Guide to Emergency Medicine, Episode #63   Then we cover laceration and wound care core content pearls using Rosenalli (Rosen's Emergency Medicine and Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine Review).
October 28, 2015
This miniature FOAMcast episode brings you pearls the American College of Emergency Physicians annual meeting, ACEP15 in Boston. We summarize some popular highlights from Day 3 including foodborne illness, wound management, and tips for giving presentations.
October 27, 2015
This miniature FOAMcast episode brings you pearls the American College of Emergency Physicians annual meeting, ACEP15 in Boston. We summarize some popular highlights from Day 2 including ECMO, trauma myths, and renal colic.
October 26, 2015
This miniature FOAMcast episode brings you pearls the American College of Emergency Physicians annual meeting, ACEP15 in Boston. We summarize some popular highlights from Day 1 including Jerry Hoffman and Rick Bukata's literature review and a talk from Dr. Jeff Kline on pulmonary embolism.
October 21, 2015
We cover an episode of the Ultrasound Podcast, in which Drs. Matt Dawson, Mike Mallin, and Jacob Avila demonstrate how to diagnose rib and sternal fractures with bedside ultrasound.   Then we cover core content pearls using Rosen's, Tintinalli, and the EAST guidelines on rib fractures, sternal fractures, and blunt cardiac injury. Visit foamcast.org for references as well as generously donated Rosh Review questions. Thanks y'all! -Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
October 8, 2015
In this tiny episode we do something a little different. Dr. Paul Young (@dogICUma) and colleagues published two papers in JAMA and NEJM, SPLIT and HEAT, respectively.   SPLIT is an RCT looking at balanced crystalloid vs 0.9% NaCl and AKI, an ever popular topic in FOAM. HEAT is an RCT of acetaminophen in ICU patients.   We'll be back with regular episodes, soon.   -Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
October 6, 2015
In this episode, we cover the New York Times article, "What Comes After The Heimlich Maneuver" and Dr. Seth Trueger's take on this article, "Bad Idea Jeans." The take home message - cricothyrotomies should be done by experts and we should probably traine ourselves for these a little better. Then, we cover core content pearls on tracheostomy emergencies and a quick summary of infections in or near the trachea.  Visit foamcast.org for more as well as generously donated Rosh Review questions. Thanks y'all! -Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
September 25, 2015
This tiny episode covers a blog entry from BrownCoatNation.com (University of Illinois, Chicago), who has a new series entitled “Inconceivable.” The idea is to expose medical terminology that we tend to use incorrectly. The first installment is focused on the misuse of the term "left shift," and it's the focus of this FOAMcastini. 'Left shift" refers to the presence of banded (immature) neutrophils in the blood. It does not refer to an elevated white blood cell count with a high percentage of neutrophils. An elevated white blood cell count with an abnormally high percentage of neutrophils should be called "neutrophillic leukocytosis." Only the presence of immature neutrophils in the periphery (including bands) can accurately be called a "left shift."  We will be back shortly with regular episodes, once their schedules coincide. Thanks for listening!  
September 7, 2015
In this episode, we cover the St. Emlyn's team's post on the REVERT trial, which added a new spin to the traditional (and traditionally ineffective) Valsalva maneuver for stable supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). In this post, Dr. Rick Body goes through the trial covering not only the results and also drops pearls on methodology. Then, we cover core content pearls on supraventricular tachycardia and ventricular tachycardia. Visit foamcast.org for more as well as generously donated Rosh Review questions. Thanks y'all! -Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
August 30, 2015
This week we cover Dr. Ryan Radecki's post on Gestational Age Adjusted D-Dimer covering an article by Murphy et al.  Then we review the differential diagnosis and workup of hemoptysis using Rosen's Emergency Medicine and Tintinalli as a guide. We have Rosh Review questions and more available on our website, FOAMcast.org. Thanks y'all! -Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer  
August 14, 2015
This week we cover Dr. Rory Spiegel's post on initial non-operative management of acute appendicitis in his blog post on EMnerd reviewing a paper by Salminen et al. Then we review appendicitis and some other right lower quadrant abdominal pearls using Rosen's Emergency Medicine and Tintinalli as a guide. We have Rosh Review questions and more available on our website, FOAMcast.org. Thanks y'all! -Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer  
July 25, 2015
This week we cover posts from the Wessex ICS site, The Bottom Line, which is an excellent source for breakdown of recent and important trials. We cover their post on a systematic review of peripheral pressor complications (Loubani et al) and then we delve into a recent prospective trial by Cardenas-Garcia and colleagues that came up at SMACC. Then we review peripheral vasopressors using Tintinalli and Rosen's Emergency Medicine as a guide.  We have Rosh Review questions and more available on our website, FOAMcast.org. Thanks y'all! -Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
July 18, 2015
ACEP released an updated clinical policy on the use of tPA for acute ischemic stroke in June 2015.  We reviewed this on a prior episode. While we are not an interview based show, we had to seize the opportunity to talk with those with more experience.  In this episode, Jeremy interviews Dr. Jerry Hoffman, a notorious tPA critic. We shall return to regular core content soon. -Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer
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