Dave Stachowiak: Eight Types of Power
A brief word from Power vs. Force* by David Hawkins
In 1959, French & Raven identified several types of power in their research:
1. Reward power
Giving something of value
2. Expert power
Knowledge, competence, and experience
3. Referent power
Personality and charisma to influence others
We have the legitimate right to command given our position in the organization
In 1975, Raven & Kruglanski added to the list...
5. Connection power
Access to powerful people and organizations
6. Information power
Access to information that other parties don’t have
In 1989, Liberatore et al. added...
7. Group decision-making power
The decisions an entire organization gets behind
Finally, in 1991, Yukl & Falbe identified...
8. Persuasive power
The ability to influence through logic and dialogue
A brief word about force
Coercive “power” is also cited in the research
This is the force against will - to threaten punishment and deliver penalty
Effective leaders have two directives when considering force:
1. Use it only as a last result
2. To be certain, at least beyond a reasonable doubt, that it’s justified
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