The Fourier Transform

The Fourier transform is one of the handiest tools in signal processing for dealing with periodic time series data. Using a Fourier transform, you can break apart a complex periodic function into a bunch of sine and cosine waves, and figure out what the amplitude, frequency and offset of those component waves are. It's a really handy way of re-expressing periodic data--you'll never look at a time series graph the same way again.

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